Journal of Chemical Natural Resources <p align="justify">Journal of Chemical Natural Resources (JCNaR) is a peer-reviewed biannual journal (February and August) published by TALENTA as an open access journal. The Aim of the journal is to provide a medium to exchange ideas and information related to research and knowledge in disciplines of organic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physical chemistry. The journal also receives systematic reviews, meta- analysis and review article on the new issues in the fields of chemistry and natural sciences. Submission to this journal implies that the manuscript has not been published or under consideration to be published in another journal.</p> Talenta Publisher en-US Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2656-1492 Antioxidant Activity of Bioactive and Mineral Constituents of Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaf and Seed Extract <p>In recent years, there has been a surge in research on natural products, particularly plant-based ones, for pharmaceutical formulations and food supplements. Natural products rich in bioactive components like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponins, and elemental minerals like Fe, Mg, Mn, and Cu, serve as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. This study investigates the antioxidant capacity of Jatropha curcas leaves and seeds and the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and mineral compositions of the plant’s leaves and seeds. The samples were collected and treated before being extracted through cool maceration in methanol. The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts were evaluated using the DPPH Assay after their concentration was achieved using a rotary evaporator. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted to investigate the presence of phytochemicals in both the seed and leaves of J. curcas. The presence of elemental minerals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mg was investigated using AAS. The phytochemical analysis of J. curcas revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids in both leaves and seeds, while alkaloids and terpenoids were found in the leaves. The mineral composition indicates Mg levels of 1161.65 mg/Kg in leaves and 590.66 mg/kg in seeds, with Cu absent in leaves while Mn highest in leaves. The study found that Jatropha curcas leaves have the highest antioxidant activities (82.6%), competing with the ascorbic acid standard (86.2%), with less activity in seeds (52.7 %), suggesting the high potential of the leaves for pharmaceutical formulations and food supplements.</p> Shedrach Yakubu Garbunga Yebpella Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 6 1 1 9 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.15658 Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Compound from the Rambutan Stem Bark (Nephelium lappaceum L.) <p>Flavonoids derived from the stem barks of Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) have been extracted. The extraction of Rambutan stem bark was performed by maceration using a methanol solvent. The concentrated methanol extract was diluted in ethyl acetate until the solution became devoid of all positive and flavonoid compounds. The highly concentrated ethyl acetate extract was subsequently dissolved using methanol and separated into different parts using an n-hexane. The methanol content was determined using thin-layer chromatography and separated using column chromatography using eluent chloroform: methanol in various ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30) v/v. The chemicals were purified using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and yielded 7.9 mg of amorphous solids with an Rf value of 0.25. The eluent was a chloroform and ethyl acetate mixture in a 50:50 volume-to-volume ratio. The substance was analyzed using Spectrophotometer Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectrophotometer (FT-IR), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonancy Spectrophotometer (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR). The analysis identified the chemical as a flavonoid of the flavonol.</p> Helmina Sembiring Mesy Jelisa Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 6 1 10 15 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16207 Electrolysis of Metal Coating Industrial Waste Using Carbon Electrode to Reduce Metal Levels of Chromium (Cr), Zink (Zn), and Cadmium (Cd) <p>The wastewater from the metal coating industry comprises hazardous and poisonous metals, necessitating the reduction of its concentration before its release into water. The typically employed chemical technique involves the addition of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC), which causes the hazardous element to accumulate due to the subsequent application of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC). Next, the metal content is measured and determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This study employed the electrolysis technique utilizing carbon electrodes. The liquid waste undergoes electrolysis with voltage changes of 8, 11, 14, and 17 volts for 2 hours. The investigation yielded the optimal voltage for minimizing the metal content. The voltage applied to the metal is 17 volts. The reduction in the concentrations of Cr, Zn, and Cd metals achieved with the optimal voltage is 63.02%, 70.02%, and 80.14%, respectively.</p> Zul Alfian Valentina Hutagalung Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 6 1 16 21 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16208 Reduction of Metal Density of Iron (Fe) and Natrium Minerals (Na) in Boring Water Using Rubber Fruit Sheets Active Archoic <p>Activated carbon is a highly popular adsorbent for the absorption of metal ions. Lignocellulosic materials can be used to produce activated carbon, which is both renewable and abundant, as well as being cost-effective. The objective of this research is to investigate the reduction of iron (Fe) and sodium (Na) levels in the artesian well by utilizing activated carbon made from rubber shells. The materials utilized include rubber shells, a solution containing 10% H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (phosphoric acid), water from an artesian well, and distilled water (aquadest). The carbonization process was conducted at 300º C for 1 h, using an adsorbent size of 120 mesh. In addition, chemical activation was performed using a 10% H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> solution for 24 h, followed by physical activation through heating in a furnace at a temperature of 500ºC for 1 hour. The acquired activated carbon is utilized for the absorption of Fe and Na. The activated carbon was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the concentration of Fe and Na minerals was determined using an Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicated a reduction of 97.9% in the concentration of iron (Fe) and a decrease of 90.01% in sodium (Na) levels.</p> Zul Alfian Uly Ashari Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 6 1 22 29 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16221 Determination of Maximum Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan and Carboxymethyl Chitosan on the Absorption of Metal Ions Cr (VI) Based on the Langmuir Equation <p>A study has been conducted to investigate the adsorption of chrom (VI) metal ions by hand chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan. This research aimed to examine the adsorption capacity of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan and determine the applicability of the Langmuir isotherm adsorption method for adsorbing Cr (VI) metal ions utilizing these materials. Chitosan was chemically treated with a 40% NaOH solution and monochloroacetic acid, dispersed in 2-propanol at room temperature for 10 h. This reaction resulted in the formation of carboxymethyl chitosan. FT-IR analyzed the functional group of carboxymethyl chitosan. The adsorption process was conducted using a standard solution with varying concentrations of Cr6+, specifically 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L. The concentration of Cr6+ adsorbed was measured using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The findings demonstrated that carboxymethyl chitosan exhibited the maximum capacity for adsorbing chrom metal ions, with a mass of 0.9179 mg/g carboxymethyl chitosan at a concentration of 20 ppm. Chrom (VI) metal ion adsorption by carboxymethyl chitosan follows the Langmuir equation with an R<sup>2</sup> value greater than 0.9. The maximum adsorption capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan is 1.16 mg/g, which is higher compared to chitosan's capacity of only 0.60 mg/g.</p> Darwin Yunus Nasution Amir Hamzah Siregar Etika Rokhmayanti Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 6 1 30 38 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16212 Reduction of Metal Density of Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) Using Corn Active Archarge and Commercial Active Archarge on Water from a Bali Well <p>Through the use of commercial and cassava peel activated charcoal, research was done on how to lower the levels of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in well water that had been excavated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was utilized to conduct the activated charcoal test. The samples were collected from the wells of individuals residing in Kelurahan Sumber Karya Binjai Timur. Water samples were treated with concentrated nitric acid (HNO<sub>3</sub>) and decomposed. The concentration of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) was determined before and after adding activated charcoal made from cassava peel and commercially available activated charcoal, with masses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g. This was done using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) at specific wavelengths of 248.3 nm for Fe and 324.8 nm for Cu. The research findings indicate a decrease in iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) concentration before and after. The amount of activated charcoal made from cassava peel was varied from 1g to 5g. As the mass increased, the iron (Fe) concentration fell by 94.08%, 97.53%, 99.01%, 99.10%, and 99.07% respectively. The copper (Cu) content was reduced by 92.73%, 96.36%, 96.36%, 98.48%, and 97.12%. For commercial activated charcoal with varying masses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 grams, the concentration of iron (Fe) was reduced by 0.27%, 52.41%, 72.70%, 98.85%, and 98.09%, respectively. The copper (Cu) content reduced by 32.22%, 71.25%, 95.31%, 98.18%, and 96.06%.</p> Zul Alfian Fristiwayuni Dara Silvia Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 6 1 39 44 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16223 Effect of Clay Composition and Human Haircut Waste on Mechanical Properties Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Composites <p>The impact of human haircut waste and the nature of clay soil on the mechanical characteristics of epoxy resin composites has been studied. This study utilizes clay sourced from Wonosari Village, Deli Serdang Regency. The clay was pulverized using a pestle and mortar until it reached a smooth consistency. It is then filtered through a 200 mesh screen and subjected to drying in an oven at a temperature of 105℃ for around 3 h until the water content is completely evaporated. Finally, the dried clay stored in a desiccator. The clay powder was subjected to ball milling for 40 h at 350 rpm. The resulting particle size, determined by particle size analysis (PSA), was found at 0.764 µm. Next, the human haircut waste obtained from the surrounding campus of Universitas Sumatera Utara was prepared by separating the hair from fine hair and washing it clean. Clay soil powder and human hair cut waste are used as fillers, and some variations of epoxy resin mixtures are used. Morphological SEM analysis shows that clay and human haircut waste can be distributed evenly on epoxy resin composites. Testing of water absorption and mechanical properties of the board based on SNI 01-449-2006 standards include the test of dry bending strength (MoR) and the mode of flexural elasticity (MoE) obtained the optimum composition (50: 50: 1: 1) g against the epoxy resin mixture, waste human haircut, and clay soil obtained the water absorption test results of 1.64% with a value of MoE 36789.03 kgf /cm<sup>2</sup> and a value of MoR 664,41 kgf/cm<sup>2</sup>. Test results of mechanical properties and water absorption have fulfilled the SNI 01-449-2006 quality standards for composite boards.</p> Darwin Yunus Nasution Muhammad Delfis Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 6 1 45 54 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16220 Effect of Chitosan Addition on Porosity of Rice Husk Calcium Silicate Used for Free Fatty Acid Adsorbent from Palm Oil <p>Studies have been done on developing calcium silicate pores derived from rice husk with and without including chitosan as a template. The chitosan solution was supplemented with sodium silicate derived from rice husk, and then CaCl<sub>2</sub> was added. The calcium silicate was calcinated at 900ºC for 4 h. The calcium silicate obtained was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The XRD analysis showed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to Wollastonite (CaSiO<sub>3</sub>) crystals, Wollastonite 2m (CaSiO<sub>3</sub>), Alite (Ca<sub>3</sub>SiO<sub>5</sub>), and larnite (Ca<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>4</sub>). Next, the FT-IR spectrum exhibits Si-O-Si, Si-O-Ca, and Si-OH functional groups, suggesting the presence of calcium silicate material. The BET study of calcium silicate using chitosan templates revealed a pore size of 3.88 nm, a pore volume of 0.1577 cc/g, and a surface area of 81.1519 m<sup>2</sup>/g. The BET analysis results obtained differed from those of the BET analysis of calcium silicate conducted without using chitosan templates, which were 2.06 nm, 0.069 cc/g, and 13.531 m2/g, respectively. The developed mesoporous calcium silicate was employed as an adsorbent to decrease the concentrations of free fatty acids in palm oil. The acid-base titration method is used to evaluate quantities of free fatty acids. The results obtained from the computation of free fatty acid levels indicate a decline in the concentration of free fatty acids in palm oil. The concentration of free fatty acids derived from palm oil was 1.23%. Therefore, mesoporous calcium silicate-free fatty acids at a concentration of 1.06% resulted in an 86.1% reduction.</p> Saur Lumban Raja Olwin Butarbutar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 6 1 55 64 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16222 Synthesis of Schiff Base through the Condensation Reaction Between Cellulose Dialdehyde with Ethylenediamine and Aniline as Well as Antibacterial Activity Test <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="69%"> <p>Schiff base was created using a condensation reaction involving Ethylene diamine or Aniline and dialdehyde cellulose (DAC), which was obtained by oxidizing α-cellulose with sodium periodate as the oxidizing agent. The cellulose dialdehyde was identified through qualitative analysis, which involved observing the formation of a brick red sediment during the Fehling test and a rise in solubility in water. Additionally, the presence of an aldehyde group was confirmed by analyzing the FT-IR spectrophotometer data, which showed a peak at a wave number of 1635.64 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The synthesized dialdehyde cellulose has an oxidation degree of 80.9% and a carbonyl level of 10.36%. The Schiff base was analyzed using an FT-IR spectrophotometer, which revealed peaks at wave numbers 1635.64 cm-1 and 1604.77 cm<sup>-1</sup>. These peaks suggest the creation of a Schiff base bond (C=N) resulting from the condensation of the amine group from Ethylene diamine and Aniline with the aldehyde group from DAC. The antibacterial activity of Schiff bases was evaluated using the disc plate diffusion method. The Schiff base resulting from the condensation of DAC with Ethylenediamine at concentrations of 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% was tested against <em>S.aureus</em> and <em>E.coli.</em> Clear zones of inhibition were seen, indicating the antibacterial effect. The Schiff base resulting from the condensation of DAC with Aniline at concentrations of 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% showed clear zone diameters of 6.9 mm, 9 mm, and 12.5 mm against <em>S.aureus</em> and 7 mm, 12.5 mm, and 13 mm against <em>E.coli</em>. The clear zone diameters in a row were 10 mm, 10.8 mm, and 20.1 mm against <em>S.aureus</em> and 10.5 mm, 14.6 mm, and 17.1 mm against <em>E.coli.</em> The condensation of dialdehyde cellulose with ethylene diamine and Aniline leads to Schiff base formation. This Schiff base has antibacterial characteristics that are effective against <em>S.aureus</em> and <em>E.coli.</em></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Thomas Febrian Tambunan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 6 1 65 71 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16224 Production of Glucose Syrup Derived from Cassava Peel Starch Using Amylase Enzyme from Green Bean Seed Sprout Extract (Phaseolus radiatus L.) <p>The production of glucose syrup derived from cassava peels starch using amylase enzyme from green bean seed sprout extract (<em>Phaseolus radiatus</em> L.) has been carried out by isolating the enzyme from the green bean seed sprouts extract then purified by precipitation using ammonium sulphate with the saturation of 60% (w/v). Amylase enzyme activity was determined using the Nelson Somogyi method. The research results obtained the activity of the amylase enzyme in the deposition of 60% ammonium sulphate at 12.22 U/mL. Amylase enzyme was applied as a hydrolyzed starch from cassava peels with a weight ratio of raw material with water 10% (w / v) to produce glucose syrup with the addition of 0.25% enzyme; 0.5%; 0.75%; 1% (v / v). The glucose syrup obtained was then tested for viscosity, reducing sugars, water content, ash content, and organoleptics. The best glucose syrup analysis results from adding 1% amylase enzyme with a viscosity value of 238.71cP, water content of 12.45%, reduction sugar content of 33.81%, ash content of 0.49%, and dextrose equivalent value of 50.16%.</p> Emma Zaidar Nasution Sari Mutiara Ginting Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 6 1 72 79 10.32734/jcnar.v6i1.16225