Journal of Chemical Natural Resources <p align="justify">Journal of Chemical Natural Resources (JCNaR) is a peer-reviewed biannual journal (February and August) published by TALENTA as an open access journal. The Aim of the journal is to provide a medium to exchange ideas and information related to research and knowledge in disciplines of organic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physical chemistry. The journal also receives systematic reviews, meta- analysis and review article on the new issues in the fields of chemistry and natural sciences. Submission to this journal implies that the manuscript has not been published or under consideration to be published in another journal.</p> en-US (Saharman Gea, PhD) (Alberto Tondang, S.Kom) Thu, 29 Aug 2019 13:47:15 +0700 OJS 60 Synthesis of Carboxymethyltricellulose and Its Adsorption Towards Cu2+ Ions <p>Cellulose was isolated from plantain skin and then carboxymethylated with trichloroacetic acid which resulted a 0.9936 gram of carboxymethylcellulose. The FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of carboxymethyltricellulose indicated the –OH vibration at wavelength of 3448.72 cm-1.Moreover, a wavenumber in the region of 1026.13 cm-1 is attributed to ether vibration (-O-) and carboxyl vibration at 1651.07 cm-1. The results of morphological analysis using SEM also showed a smoother, homogeneous pore, and a larger surface area. The adsorption capability for Cu2+ ions at concentration of 100 ppm was analyzed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS). It shows that the optimum adsorption was found to be at a 90 minutes agitation process for both carboxymethyltricellulose and cellulose with about 97.266% and 21.602% respectively.</p> Adil Ginting Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Characteristics and The Making of Biopolymer Film from Oil Palm Trunk Starch (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Using Sorbitol Plasticizer <p>The research about of the biopolymers film from oil palm trunk starch had been done.&nbsp; Biopolymers&nbsp; film&nbsp; made&nbsp; by&nbsp; mixing&nbsp; of&nbsp; oil&nbsp; palm&nbsp; trunk&nbsp; starch&nbsp; (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and plasticizer sorbitol with the variation was 2:0,8 ; 2:1,0 ;2:1,2 (g/mL), then the film was molded on acrylic plate and dried in an oven at 40°C for 24&nbsp; hours.&nbsp; The results of&nbsp; the film characterization&nbsp; show that&nbsp; the best variation of biopolymers on comparison 2:0,8 (g/mL) with the value of tensile strength was 4,26 MPa, percentage of elongation was 1,87 %, and film thickness was 0,16 mm, then it can be used as reference for addition 2 gram chitosan on the establishment of biopolymer film. It was characterized by tensile strength test with value was 14,00 MPa, pencentage of elongation with value was 3,20 %, and film thickness&nbsp; with&nbsp; value&nbsp; was&nbsp; 0,10&nbsp; mm.&nbsp; The&nbsp; results&nbsp; of&nbsp; Differential&nbsp; Scanning Calorimetry&nbsp; (DSC)&nbsp; showed&nbsp; increasing&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; endothermic&nbsp; temperature&nbsp; was 115,75 oC and exothermic temperature was 394,56 oC. The results of Thermal Gravimetry Analysis (TGA) showed that at a temperature of 340,1 0C the film to start decomposed. The value of % Swelling was 63,176%. The Fourier Transform Infra&nbsp; Red&nbsp; (FT-IR)&nbsp; result&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that&nbsp; in&nbsp; biopolymers&nbsp; film&nbsp; occurs&nbsp; physical interaction&nbsp; only.&nbsp; As&nbsp; well&nbsp; as,&nbsp; the&nbsp; antibacterial&nbsp; activity&nbsp; analysis&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that addition of chitosan on biopolymer film made Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli bacterial was great inhibited with index antibacterial value of 0,625&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; From SEM analysis showed&nbsp; that film had&nbsp; been&nbsp; added by chitosan more homogenous than film without chitosan addition. The presence of chitosan addition tend to increase the physical and mechanical&nbsp; properties of biopolymer film.</p> Amir Hamzah Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Effect of Cadmium in Biosorption of Lead by Lengkeng Seed and Shell (Euphoria logan lour) <p>In this study, the effect of&nbsp; of Cd(II) in biosorption of Pb(II) by lengkeng seed and sheel from a binary metal mixture was studied and compared with the single metal ion situation and other way. The purpose studied by the metal ion competition in the solution is to know the effect and the absorption capacity of one type of metal ion in a solution containing several metal ions inside which will be applied to the waste. The optimum conditions used were for Pb at pH 3 and Cd at pH 5 with a particle size of 250μm. The results showed a decrease in the absorption of Pb metal ions reached 42.14% (for lengkeng sheel) and 57.07% (for lengkeng seed). And decrease of Cd metal ion to 68,11% for seed and 64,77% for lengkeng shell.</p> Desy Kurniawaty Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Surface Coverage and Corrosive Rate of Methanol Extract from Taro Tuber (Colocasia esculenta) on Mild Steel in Sulfuric Acid <p>Surface coverage and corrosion rate of taro tuber methanol extract on mild steel in dilute 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution were studied through weight loss method, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM.The result obtained in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution for 72 hours with optimal surface coveragewas 0.86. The corrosion ratewas found to be decreased and surface coveragewas increased with the increasing concentration of taro tuber methanol extract which was added. The results showed that taro tuber methanol extract was a good corrosion inhibitor.</p> Diah Riski Gusti Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Utilization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Cmc) from Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L) Cellulose as Stabilizer for Cow Milk Yogurt <p>The utilization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) cellulose as stabilizer for cow milk yogurt has been done in three steps. The first step was α-cellulose isolation from groundnut skin powder which was analysed with FTIR. The result was compared to FTIR analysis of commercial cellulose to verify the compound obtained is cellulose. The second step involves alkalization process using isopropanol and NaOH, carboxymethylation process with sodium chloroacetate (NaMCA), neutralization using CH3COOH 90% and ethanol, purification with aquadest and followed by centrifugation and addition of acetone to produce carboxymethyl cellulose. The CMC produced gave positive result in the qualitative anlysis, the FTIR spectrum was similar to commercial CMC and the degree of substitution obtained was 0.71. The last step is yogurt making process. In this stage, the CMC concentration added was varied from 0 – 0.5%. Then, the yogurt produced went through quality analysis such as syneresis, pH, viscosity, protein, fat content and organoleptic tests. The best result was obtained at the addition of 0.5% CMC concentration with 7.69% and 2.11% protein and fat content, pH 4.6, viscosity was 1676.01 x 102 cP, low syneresis with 90.66% stability and 22 days of storage life. Organoleptic result shows that yogurt with 0.3% CMC addition gave the best result with distinctive aroma and sourness, and rather thick texture. The panelists preferred such yogurt to others. The quality analysis for yogurt with CMC stabilizer still meets SNI standard.&nbsp; [Use 10 pt Times New Roman for the abstract body with single spacing and 10 pt spacing for the next heading. Left indent is 2 cm and right indent is 0 cm. Please write abstract paper in English with maximum length is 200 words.</p> Firman Sebayang Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Fabrication of Complex Polyelectrolyte Membrane of Chitosan-Pectin Crosslinked as Bioadsorbent <p>Biopolymers are polymers fabricated from natural polymers which are biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable. This research was aimed to synthesize and characterize biopolymer made from chitosan and pectin and was made to be a membrane cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and then characterized. The chitosan-pectin crosslinked glutaraldehyde polyelectrolite complex (PEC) and membrane can be used as a bioadsorbent for metal and cationic dyes. Firstly, PEC membrane chitosan-pectin crosslinked glutaraldehyde was synthesized by dissolving chitosan in acetic acid and pectin in distilled water and added with glutaraldehyde as a crosslinked agent, then heated at 70 °C. The amount of 1M NaOH solution was added for 12 hours and then cleaned with distilled water and dried at room temperature. Subsequently, the membrane was characterized with FTIR spectrophotometer, medium acidity test, and water uptake. The results of the characterization of PEC mebmbrane chitosan-pectin crosslinked glutaraldehyde with FTIR showed the interaction between –NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> of chitosan with –COO<sup>-</sup> group of pectin at a wavelength of 1604.77 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The medium acidity test showed that the PEC membrane chitosan-pectin crosslinked with glutaraldehyde was stable at pH 3-9 with water absorption of 266.67%, with the composition of chitosan-pectine membrane of 70:30 with 30% glutaraldehyde</p> Friska Septiani Silitonga Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Biosorption of Zn (II) Metal Ion by Ca-Alginate Immobilized Durian (Durio Zibethinus) Seed <p>Heavy metal biosorption by alginate immobilized durian seed has been done. The immobilization of durian seed powder to Ca-alginate was able to improve biomass&nbsp; adsorption process, increase uptake capacity, ease separation from solution, generate and repeat biosorbent. In this experiment the effect of pH, contact time, concentration and temperature on the uptake capacity of metal ions Zn(II) in solution were studied. Biosorption was done batch methods and result was studied Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of heavy metal was optimum in pH 5 with 75 mins contact time and Zn(II) ion under the concentration of 250-300 mg/l. The adsorption isotherm data was characterized using Langmuir and Freundlich equation. The equilibrium biosorption isotherm showed that alginate immobilized durian seed process has high affinities with adsorption capacities of 25.05 mg/g. All results showed that alginate immobilized durian seed is an alternative low cost biosorbent for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solution</p> Intan Lestari Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Gel Formulation of Ethyl Acetate Garlic Extraction and Its Activity Against Staphylococcus Epidermis <p>Garlic is known to have antibacterial and antifungal activities. This research aims to formulate the gel materials extracted from the garlic and to investigate the antimicrobial activities to Staphylococcus epidermidis. The phytochemical screening showed that the gel materials of ethyl acetate consisted alkaloid, flavonoid, and saponin substances. The formulation of gel was synthesized with different variations of 1, 5, and 10%. In this research, the gel materials were analyzed to understand the stability, homogeneity, pH, viscosity and dispersive powers.&nbsp; The results showed that good abilities of gel based on the taste, aroma and consistency, while the homogeneity property of each samples is influenced by the presence of gel concentration. The viscosity property of gels accounted for 3201.02-1664.04 Cps with 2.95-3.8 cm of dispersive powers. The ability of antimicrobial showed that higher concentration of 5% and 10% gels showed greater inhibitory zones of 18,10 and 22,08 mm compared to 1% of concentration</p> Khairan Khairan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Cytotoxic Activities of the Extracts of Sengkubak (Pycnarrhena cauliflora) As Apoptosis Inducers to Hela Cervical Cancer Cells <p>Cancer has been considered as problematic medical issues both in developed and developing countries. Pycnarrhena cauliflora or Sengkubak (Pycnarrhena cauliflora) has a potential value as alternatives for anticancer medication. This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of Sengkubak (Pycnarrhena cauliflora), and investigate the induction for apoptosis mechanisms from the extracts n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol from roots, branches the leaves to HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxic activities were analyzed by performing MTT methods, while induction analysis of apoptosis was conducted by utilizing the Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AO/EB) as visual nuclear methodologies. The extracts of roots dichloromethane showed the highest cytotoxic activities accounted for IC50 70µg/mL and these extracts were able to induce the apoptosis mechanisms. This study concludes that the Sengkubak (Pycnarrhena cauliflora) has the ability as a potential alternative for anticancer medications.</p> Masriani Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Improving Porosity of Glycerol-plated Silica from Rice Husk Silica <p>Research on the increasing pore size of rice husk silica with the addition of glycerol as a template has been done. Sodium silicate obtained from rice husk can be extracted with sodium hydroxide. The resulting sodium silicate is then added to the glycerol and followed by precipitation using hydrochloric acid to obtain silica. The obtained results were calcined at 600°C. The resulting material analised by FT-IR, XRD and BET. The FT-IR data shows an asymmetric Si-O-Si absorption peak at wave number 1067 cm<sup>-1</sup> and a symmetrical Si-O-Si peak absorption at 806.77 cm<sup>-1</sup> wave number. Diffractogram XRD also shows a widening peak in the area of 22.820 that the silica is amorphous. The result of adsorption of nitrogen desorption of silica isotherm indicated Type IV isotherm adsorption which was characteristic of mesoporous material and obtained the size distribution of &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;9.2 nm and the pore volume was 0.002850 cc / g and the surface area of silica was &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;80.38 m<sup>2</sup>/g</p> Saur Lumban Raja Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0700