Journal of Chemical Natural Resources <p align="justify">Journal of Chemical Natural Resources (JCNaR) is a peer-reviewed biannual journal (February and August) published by TALENTA as an open access journal. The Aim of the journal is to provide a medium to exchange ideas and information related to research and knowledge in disciplines of organic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physical chemistry. The journal also receives systematic reviews, meta- analysis and review article on the new issues in the fields of chemistry and natural sciences. Submission to this journal implies that the manuscript has not been published or under consideration to be published in another journal.</p> en-US (Dr. Irwana Nainggolan, M.Sc) (Ardiansyah Sembiring, S.Si., M.Si) Wed, 23 Aug 2023 14:35:41 +0700 OJS 60 Effectiveness of Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber from Banana Leaf Waste (Musa paradisiaca L.) as an Antibacterial Filter in Masks <p>The COVID-19 pandemic requires all people in Indonesia to comply with health protocols, from washing hands to wearing masks. Cloth masks are one of the masks that are widely used by the community. However, the public needs to pay attention to the rules of the cloth masks used. The purposes of this study were to produce an antibacterial filter on masks and to find out the effective and efficient processing of banana stems as an antibacterial filter on masks. Banana stems were chosen as the raw material because it is easy to obtain, has a cellulose content of ± 63%, and has antibacterial compounds in it. The stages of this research were sample preparation, phytochemical screening of banana stems, isolation of α-cellulose and synthesis of cellulose acetate from α-cellulose which were further characterized by using FTIR, manufacture of dop solution, manufacture of nanofiber membranes by electrospinning, and product application. The resulting product was then tested by pressure drop test, contact angle test, antibacterial activity test, SEM test, and porosity test. The test results showed that the resulting product was a nanofiber with a fiber diameter of ± 220.74075 nm, had antibacterial activity which was indicated by the formation of inhibition zone with a diameter of ± 14.8 mm in Escherichia coli and&nbsp; ± 9.8 mm in Staphylococcus. aureus, the filter is hydrophilic with an average contact angle of 60°. From the observations, it can be concluded that banana stems have the potential as an antibacterial filter on masks.</p> Muhammad Zulham efendi sinaga, Sylvia Romalia Simanungkalit, Brian Cristoper Sembiring, Dzul Hadi Sahputra, Putri Amelia Sihotang, Shofi Tasa Al-Khairi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Isolation of Sillica from Pantai Cermin Sand and Modification with Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Ligan Ethylendyamine Through Coating Method as Absorption of Pb Metal <p>Research on the formation of synthesis and modification coating of silica and obtained silica with a quartz structure used to absorb lead metal ions. This isolation was performed by extracting silica from sand with the co-precipitation method using NaOH 7M and then adding HCl 2M. The resulting silica was coated with sodium lauryl sulfate and ethylenediamine to increase adsorption. The FT-IR spectrum on silica shows the presence of Si-O-Si, Si-O-, Si-OH, S–O, SO<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>2</sub>, and NH—Sillica coating, which sodium lauryl sulfate and ethylenediamine ligands were carried out by coating method at pH 2. The results obtained before and after coating on silica were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, and SEM EDX analysis. The FT-IR spectrum on sillica showed the presence of Si-O-Si, Si-O, and Si-OH functional groups. After the coating, there was a change in the spectrum, indicating new functional groups in the S-O, SO<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>2</sub>, and NH spectra. Characterization using XRD shows the diffraction peaks were of 2𝛳 27,6297°, which indicates the amorph. After coating, the diffraction peaks appeared at an angle of 2𝛳 in the area of 19.62 °, 20.47°, 21.04 °, 25.56 °, 26.50 °, and 29.73 ° with a high enough intensity indicating increased crystallinity. The morphology, composition, and size of the silica produced before and after coating were observed by SEM-EDX. Where there is a change in the size before and after a modification, that is 100,788 nm to 85,3773 nm. Silica before and after coating is used as an adsorbent to reduce levels of heavy metal lead (Pb). This analysis showed that the adsorption of Pb²⁺ with silica was 4,5162 ppm, while the adsorption of Pb²⁺ after coating was 1,1146 ppm.</p> Saur Lumban Raja, Simon Putra Lubis Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Effectiveness of Activated Zeolite in Reducing Iron (Fe) and Zink (Zn) Metal Levels in Borehole Water <p>Research has been carried out on the adsorption of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) metal levels using activated zeolite with acid and base in healthy water. Characterization was carried out on activated zeolite using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Samples were taken from borehole water from Puji Mulyo area, Deli Serdang, and preserved with HNO<sub>3</sub> until pH &lt; 2, then digested. Determined the concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) before and after the addition of activated zeolite by NaOH and HCl using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) with length-specific waves are 248.3 nm for iron (Fe) and 213.9 nm for zinc (Zn) metal. The results showed that the concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the borehole water after the addition of activated zeolite decreased. Zeolite activated by NaOH absorbs iron (Fe) metal by 68.60% and absorbs zinc (Zn) metals by 37.91%. Meanwhile, Zeolite activated by HCl absorbs iron (Fe) by 42.37% and absorbs zinc (Zn) metal by 15.17%. This research shows that the effectiveness of percentage (%) decreasing the concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) metal using activated zeolite with NaOH was more significant and more effective than activated zeolite with HCl.</p> Zul Alfian, Ronaldo Sensini Siregar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Synthesis of Schiff Bases via Condensation of Aldehydes from Ozonolysis of Purple Passion Fruit Seed Oil with Phenylhydrazine and Aniline and Their Utilization as Corrosion Inhibitor on Steel Metal (Zn) in 0.1N HCl Solution Media <p class="Isiabstrak" style="margin-bottom: 12.0pt;">Schiff base was synthesized through a condensation reaction between the aldehyde derived from purple passion fruit seed oil and phenylhydrazine (Schiff base I) and the aldehyde derived from purple passion fruit seed oil with aniline (Schiff base II). Aldehydes are obtained from the ozonolysis process of purple passion fruit seed oil using ozone to produce ozonides and then reduced with Zn powder in dilute acetic acid. The formation of aldehyde derivatives of purple passion fruit seed oil is supported qualitatively by the formation of a brick red precipitate through the addition of Fehling reagent and the formation of a silver mirror on the wall of the test tube with the addition of Tollens reagent and a decrease in the number of iodine compared to purple passion fruit seed oil and the results of FT-IR analysis provide a spectrum with a vibration peak at a wave number of 1744.4 cm<sup>-1</sup> which indicates the C=O aldehyde group. The aldehyde derivative of purple passion fruit seed oil produced has an iodine value of 110.0467, which is lower than that of purple passion fruit seed oil, which is 122.0644. The formation of Schiff II base resulted in yields of 3% and 70% supported by FT-IR spectrum of vibration peaks at wave numbers 1654 cm-1 and 1602.8 cm<sup>-1</sup>, which indicated the formation of imines (-C=N-) as a result of condensation between derived aldehyde groups of purple passion fruit seed oil with amine groups of phenylhydrazine and aniline. Testing the iodine number on the Schiff I base and the Schiff II base yielded values of 124.9079 and 117.3266. A corrosion inhibitor test was carried out using the gravimetric method on HCl media with a concentration of 0.1N, 24 hours and various concentrations of compounds 1000, 3000, 5000, and 7000 ppm. Corrosion inhibitor efficiency for purple passion fruit seed oil, Schiff Base I, and Schiff Base II, respectively, were 27.87%, 88.28% and 94.08% at a concentration of 7000 ppm.</p> Herlince Sihotang, Andreas Dani Hotman Sitio Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Improved Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn) Fruit Juice Quality with Carboxymethyl Cellulose Extracted from Cassava Peel (Manihot esculenta Crantz) <p>The utilization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from cassava peel (<em>Manihot esculenta Crantz</em>) through the quality of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn) juice was carried out through three stages. The first stage is α-cellulose isolation from cassava peel powder using an acid method and then comparing it with commercial cellulose using FTIR analysis. The second stage is an α-cellulose conversion into CMC by alkalization (using isopropanol and NaOH), carboxymethylation (using NaMCA), neutralization (using CH<sub>3</sub>COOH 90% and ethanol), purification (using distilled water followed by centrifugation and the addition of acetone which produces CMC with positive results), and then comparing isolated CMC with commercial CMC by using FTIR analysis. The last stage is Tamarillo fruit juice preparation with and without CMC addition. At this stage, the concentration of CMC was carried from 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 1.25%. The resultant juice was analyzed for its quality by stability (letting it stand for 24 hours), pH (with a pH meter), viscosity (with an Ostwald viscometer), vitamin C content (using the iodimetry method), antioxidant activity (using the free radical scavenging method with a solution and using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer), and organoleptic (tests on 30 untrained panellists). The best results were obtained from Tamarillo juice containing 1.25% CMC, which has 73% stability, pH 4.49, viscosity of 77.79 cP, vitamin C content of 25.32 mg/100 g and antioxidant activity of 59%. Organoleptic test results showed that fruit juice with the addition of 0.75% CMC was the most preferred result by panellists based on aroma, taste, texture, and color.</p> Emma Zaidar, Tiara Hidayanti Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Synthesis of Methyl Cellulose from Rice Husk Cellulose (Oryza sativa L.) with Methylene Chloride Through Etherification Reaction <p>Methyl cellulose is synthesized by an etherification reaction between α-cellulose created by isolating rice husks (<em>Oryza sativa L</em>.) with methylene chloride. Methylcellulose synthesis is performed by combining 1 g α-cellulose with acetone solvents at variations of methylene chloride 6 g, 8 g, 10 g, 12 g, and 14 g for 6 hours, resulting in 0.47 g, 0.60 g, 0.58 g; 0.51 g; and 0.69 g of methylcellulose. The results of methyl cellulose synthesis were tested with Degrees of Substitution, FT-IR spectroscopic analysis, and surface morphology using SEM. In the variation of methylene chloride, methylcellulose has the highest degree of replacement (14 g of 01,17). The formation of methyl cellulose is supported by FT-IR spectroscopy, namely with the appearance of vibration peaks in the wave number area of 3295.0 cm<sup>-1,</sup> which shows the -OH group, the C-H stretching group at wave number 2892.4 cm-1, the absorption peak that indicates the presence of C-O-C is found in wave numbers 1152.6 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1021.3 cm<sup>-1</sup> where it is an asymmetrical and symmetrical stretching vibration. Morphological analysis using SEM showed that cellulose fibers' surface is smoother than methylcellulose. The average size of cellulose and methyl cellulose fibers is 4.791 μm and 3.828 μm, respectively. Morphological analysis using SEM showed that the surface fibers in cellulose were smoother than methylcellulose. The average size of cellulose and methyl cellulose fibers was 4.791 μm and 3.828 μm.</p> Adil Ginting, Novi Yosefin Sinabariba Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Compounds and Antibacterial Activity Test of the Canyere Badak Plant (Bridelia glauca Blume) (Phyllanthaceae) <table width="101%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="69%"> <p>Flavonoid compounds from the stem bark of the Canyere Badak plant (<em>Bridelia glauca Blume</em>) have been isolated. 2500 g of Canyere Badak plant stem bark was macerated by methanol, and the methanol extract dissolved in distilled water. The distilled water solution was extracted by partitioning with ethyl acetate repeatedly until negative to 5% FeCl<sub>3</sub>. The ethyl acetate extract was dissolved in methanol and extracted by partitioning with n-hexane until the n-hexane layer was transparent. The methanol extract was analyzed by thin layer chromatography and separated by column chromatography with a stationary phase of silica gel and a mobile phase of chloroform: methanol (90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40) v/v. Fractions 148-174 were purified by preparative thin layer chromatography using benzene: acetone (80:20) v/v eluent to produce a brownish yellow paste of 10 mg at Rf value of 0,66 using chloroform: methanol (80:20) v/v as eluent. Based on the analysis of the UV-visible spectrophotometer, it had a wavelength (λ max) of 275 nm. The FT-IR spectrum shows the presence of OH, C=C aromatic, C=O ketones, C-H, C-O-C and C-O groups. The proton Nucleus Magnetic Resonance Spectrum (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR) indicates the presence of H-2’ &amp; H-6’ protons, H-3’ &amp; H-5’ protons and methoxy protons. Based on the data analysis and interpretation, the isolated compound was a flavonoid of the flavanones group. The antibacterial activity of total flavonoids was determined by agar disk diffusion against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> bacteria. The results showed that total flavonoids strongly inhibited the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> bacteria with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value at a concentration of 100 mg/mL obtained a clear zone of 9.5 mm against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> bacteria and at a concentration of 100 mg/mL obtained a clear zone of 12.15 mm against <em>Escherichia coli</em> bacteria<em>.</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Lamek Marpaung, Ade Theresia Ulina Lumban Toruan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Synthesis of Cardanil Methyl Ether via Etherification Reaction Cardanol Isolated from Cashew Nut Shells (Anacardium occidentale L.) with Variations of Molar Methyl Iodide <p>The synthesis of the Cardanyl methyl ether is carried out through an etherization reaction between Cardanyl seed skin extract (CNSL) isolated from the methyl iodide. Cardanol is isolated with the addition of acetone, Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>, NH<sub>4</sub>OH 25%, n-hexane: ethyl acetate (98:2), washing with NaOH 2.5%, HCl 5%, aquadest, and Na<sub>2</sub>SO4 anhydrate. The yield of the obtained cardanol is 74.39 g (74.39% of the initial weight of the CNSL) and has the following characteristics: acid count 1.2863 mgKOH/g, iodine count 215.6535 g I2/100 g, viscosity 38.7 cP, density 0.8266 g/mL, pH = 6.14. The FT-IR methyl ether Cardanyl spectrum shows an absorption band at 1162.9-1259.8 cm-1 shows a C-O stretching group at a wave number of 1043.6-1148.0 cm<sup>-1</sup> showing the formation of an asymmetric and symmetrical C- O-C stretching band of the ether compound, the Spectra of the FT - IR methyl ether Cardanyl shows an absorptive band at 1162-1259-125,8 cm<sup>-1</sup>, showing a C-O stretching Group, at the wave number of 1043.6-1148.0 cm<sup>-1</sup> indicating the formation, as a result, of an Asymmetric and Symmetric Stretching Group of the ethereal Compound. The Cardanyl methyl ether was synthesized by adding K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, the solvent acetone and the iodide-methyl, with a reflux time of 8 hours. As for the parameters carried out in this study, the molar variation of the Cardanyl is the Methyl Iodide (1:1.5, 1:3, and 1:4.5) and yields 3.555 g; 12.084 g; 11.472 g of Cardanyl ether. Methyl ether Cardanyl was obtained in analysis with FT-IR and GC-MS spectroscopic photometers. The results of the analysis of Cardanyl methyl ethers with GC -MS were 63.28%, and the results of analysis of the Cardanyl ether with a variation of the molar ratio Cardanyl: Methyl iodide (1:1.5; 1:3; 1:4.5) with GC-MS obtaining 3.05%, 30.29%, and 26.58%. These results show the maximum percentage of methyl ethers Cardanyl at the reaction conditions of the variation molar ratios Cardanyl iodides (1:3), K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> 17.3 g, 50 mL of acetone, and 8 hours of reflux time.</p> Sabarmin Perangin-angin, Riris Natalia Siburian Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Utilization of Coconut Shells Activated Charcoal in Making Solid Soap from Used Cooking Oil <p>Research on the utilization of coconut shell activated charcoal in making solid soap from used cooking oil by adding variations in the concentration of coconut shell activated charcoal by 3%, 5%, 10% and without purification. So, several parameters can be determined to test the quality of used cooking oil, namely PV, free fatty acid (FFA), color, moisture content, and odor based on SNI 3741: 2013. The parameter value of used cooking oil without purification on PV is 15,1607 mekO<sub>2</sub>/ kg. FFA, which is 0.8244 mgKOH / g. Water content is 0.1321% b / b. Smell that is not normal. The resulting color is 10.28 red / 87.00 yellow. Value The parameters of the quality of cooking oil produced from the treatment process after the addition of a variation of coconut shell activated charcoal by 10% can reduce the PV of 5.5247 mecO<sub>2</sub>/kg. FFA which is 0.2817 mgKOH / g. Water content is 0.0798% b / b. The smell becomes normal. The resulting color is 3.40 red / 35.00 yellow. It can be concluded that the concentration of the addition of coconut shell activated charcoal, which is optimal in the processing process, is by adding coconut shell activated charcoal by 10% in used cooking oil to meet the cooking oil quality standards according to SNI 3741: 2013. Solid soap-free fatty acids were not detected in the study of making solid soap from purified cooking oil. The soap solution was pink when the testing process was titrated with KOH solution 0.1 N. This is presumably because the fatty acids in used cooking oil have reacted all with NaOH so that the free fatty acids cannot be measured.</p> Amir Hamzah Siregar, Ardina Harahap Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Characterization of Bioplastics from Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Starch and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) with Glycerol Plasticizer <p>Research on the synthesis of bioplastic from breadfruit (<em>Artocarpus altilis</em>) starch and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) has been successfully carried out with the addition of glycerol. Samples are conducted by varying the glycerol concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) at 60<sup>o</sup>C, respectively. The bioplastic product was tested using tensile strength, elongation, water content absorption, biodegradability, and Fourier transform-infra infrared (FT-IR). The tensile strength properties from bioplastic result evaluated is 34.26 N/mm<sup>2</sup>. The elongation at break of bioplastic is found at 21.4%. Water content results from bioplastic of 44%. Biodegradability study that bioplastics of 20% in 32 days. Correspondingly, the FT-IR confirmed the functional groups of bioplastics from breadfruit starch and CMC with glycerol.</p> Cut Fatimah Zuhra, Suhadiman Dwi Baruna Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemical Natural Resources Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0700