Journal of Technomaterials Physics <p>Journal of Technomaterial Physics (JoTP) is a peer-review national journal that is published twice a year, in February and August. JoTP provides an open access policy for the writer and free publication charge. Due to its open access policy, JoTP serves online publication and a fast review process. The scope of this journal are:</p> <ol> <li>Theoretical Physics</li> <li>Applied Physics</li> <li>Material Physics</li> <li>Computational Physics and Machine Learning</li> <li>Experimental Physics</li> <li>Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics</li> <li>Biophysics and Medical Physics</li> <li>Geophysics</li> <li>Energy and Energy Conversion</li> <li>Advanced Materials (photonics, nanomaterial, and nanotechnology)</li> <li>Electronics and Electrical Engineering</li> <li>Metrology</li> </ol> <p>JoTP receives an original article with the maximum length of 10 pages and provides an open access policy for the writers and free publication charge.</p> <p> </p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Timbangen Sembiring, M.Sc) (Alberto Tondang, S.Kom.) Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 Construction of Chicken Drinking Water Sterilization Device Using Ultraviolet Light Based on ATMega8535 Microcontroller <p>This research aimed to design of a chicken drinking water sterilization device using ultraviolet light-based microcontroller ATMega8535. After constructing the device, the test that is carried out were running the system according to the procedure, observing the performance of the system that begins with setting the sterilization timer at the minimum position, and recording the results. After the power supply was activated, the potentiometer of timer set to a minimum. The pump was on for 1 minute, then the UV lamp was also active and the process continues to repeat. Potentiometer was set to increase by 50% timer in 5 minutes position, and raised again to 100% at 10 minute position. The control process of this system is carried out by an ATMega8535 microcontroller that regulates the process of draining water from the container to the pipe, the length of time it takes to activate the ultraviolet lamp and the length of time it takes to activate the pump. This device was designed to demolish germs and bacteria in the water. The test resulted in a 100% reduction in bacteria in ultraviolet-illuminated water.</p> Bisman Perangin-Angin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Designing Motorcycle Safety System Using Fingerprint Sensor, SMS Gateway, and GPS Tracker Based on ATMega328 <p>A motorcycle security system has been designed using an ATMega328 microcontroller by applying fingerprint, SMS and GPS. The system consists of a GPS Module and a SIM Module. The system is designed to find the position of a stolen motorcycle via a Google Maps and create a security system on a motorcycle that uses a fingerprint sensor as a substitute for the key to turn on and turn off the motorcycle engine. ATMega328 is used as a processor, with additional GPS, GSM SIM 8000I, relay and buzzer. When a theft occurs, the system will send an SMS contained Google Maps link to the owner of the motorcycle. The results of the system design are expected to minimize the crime rate in motor vehicle theft cases.</p> Marhaposan Situmorang Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Water Pipe Leakage Detector Using a Pressure Transmitter Sensor with a Remote Distance Smartphone Display <p>This research aimed to design the air pipe leak detection using a pressure transmitter sensor with a smartphone as a display. The research produced a method that can be relied upon by pipe leaks quickly and accurately. The method was carried out by using two flowmeter sensors that are placed before and after the pipe leak point to record data on the difference between intake and exit air flow (ΔQ). The resulting data was transmitted to the computer using a TCP/IP-based network. The results obtained show that the smaller the difference in the flow of air into and out (ΔQ), the farther the pipe leak is (X).</p> Bisman Perangin-Angin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Synthesis and Characterization of Soft Magnetic Materials NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0,2 – 0,8) Lombok Iron Sand with Co-precipitation Method <p>The synthesis of soft magnetic Ni<sub>x</sub>Zn<sub>1-x</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> with variations in composition (x = 0,2 – 0,8) by the co-precipitation method has been carried out. The research objective was to determine the effect of x variation on the crystal structure, microstructure, magnetic properties, and density. The samples were characterized by their crystal structure using XRD, microstructure using FE-SEM, magnetic properties using VSM, and physical properties (True Density). The XRD analysis results obtained two phases, the major phase is nickel-zinc ferrite, and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> shows as the minor phase. The crystal size increased and the lattice parameters decreased with the increase in nickel content. The results of FE-SEM analysis at x = 0.2 are spherical in shape with an average particle size found about 47.07 nm. The results of VSM analysis showed that the increase in nickel content, the higher the magnetization saturation value, and the super-paramagnetic properties of all samples obtained. The results of the analysis of physical properties show that true density decreases with an increase of nickel content in each sample.</p> Nining S Asri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 ST37 Steel Carburization with Coconut Charcoal <p>The carburization process is a surface hardening process where carbon is added to the surface without changing the core properties of the material. This process is carried out at the austenite temperature so that the carbon can diffuse into the phase. This process can only be done on low carbon steels with content below 0.25%. This research was conducted on ST37 steel, which is steel with low carbon content with 0.18% carbon content. This type of steel is surface hardened with a carburizing temperature of 850 C with a long lasting time of 1 hour, then it is carried out under moderate cooling with outside air media. And change its mechanical properties from the comparison of the initial mechanical properties of the specimen. The highest hardness value occurs in the carburizing process of coconut shell charcoal, but this hardness value occurs not because of the carburization process but because of the enlarged grain size caused by heating at temperatures below 723⁰ C, thus reducing the elongation properties of the material. Carburizing with battery stone media is more efficient than coconut shell charcoal at temperatures below 723 C. Because the temperature is below the austenite temperature, the absorbed carbons cannot diffuse as happened in the carburization process, but the absorbed carbons can bind the grain boundaries and change their hardness by 4%. In the microstructure research that occurs in this process nothing can change its phase because the temperature does not reach the austenite temperature. However, there are differences in the microstructure between the carburization process with coconut shell charcoal media.</p> Melya Dyanasari Sebayang Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Analysis and Simulation of Proportional Derivative and Proportional Integral Derivative Control Systems Using Xcos Scilab <p>PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control is a popular control in the industry and aims to improve the performance of a system. This control has controlling parameters, namely K<sub>p</sub>, K<sub>i</sub>, and K<sub>d</sub> which will have a control effect on the overall system response. In this research, P, PD, and PID control simulations with the transfer function of the mass-damper spring as a plant using Xcos Scilab. The method used is the trial and error method by setting and varying the values of the control constants K<sub>p</sub>, K<sub>i</sub>, and K<sub>d</sub> to produce the desired system response. The value adjustment of system control parameters is carried out with several variations, namely K<sub>p</sub> control variation, K<sub>p</sub> variation to constant K<sub>d</sub>, K<sub>d</sub> variation to constant K<sub>p</sub>, K<sub>p</sub> variation to K<sub>i</sub>, constant K<sub>d</sub>, variation of K<sub>i</sub> to K<sub>p</sub>, constant K<sub>d</sub> and variation of K<sub>d</sub> to K<sub>p</sub>, K<sub>i</sub> constant. The second method is automatic tuning which is done through mathematical calculations to obtain PID control constants, namely Zieglar Nichols PID tuning with the oscillation method. From the system simulation results, the best parameter is obtained through the Zieglar Nichols PID tuning process based on the results of the transient response analysis, namely when the proportional gain value (K<sub>p</sub>) is 50. The system performance characteristics produced in the tuning process are 3.994 seconds of settling time at 2.36 seconds research time. resulting in a maximum overshoot value of 3.6% and a peaktime value of 3.994 seconds</p> Edi Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Analysis of Curvature in Fiber Optic Cable for Macrobending-Based Slope Sensor <p>The analysis of fiber optics for macro bending-based slope sensors using SMF-28 single-mode optical fibers has been successfully conducted. Fiber optics were treated to silicon rubber molding and connected with laser light and power meters to measure the intensity of laser power generated. The working principle was carried out using the macrobending phenomenon on single-mode optical fibers. The intensity of laser light in fiber optic cables decreases in the event of indentation or bending of the fiber optic cable. Power losses resulting from the macrobending process can be seen in the result of the information sensitivity of fiber optics to the change of angle given. From the results of the study, the resulting fiber optic sensitivity value is -0.1534<sup>o</sup>/dBm. The larger the angle given, the lower the laser intensity received by the power meter.</p> Imam Mulyanto Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Dissipation of Electrical Energy into Heat Energy in Web-Based Rainfall Meter Microcontrollers <p>The heat dissipation of a system has been observed. In this study, the Arduino Nano as a microcontroller of web based rainfall gauge calibrator will be analyzed through the application of an automatic pump, the DHT22 sensor as a detector for temperature change on the microcontroller on standby for 5 minutes and operate for 55 minutes. Electrical energy can be obtained from voltage and current measurements using a multimeter and heat energy can be obtained from temperature changes detected by the DHT 22 sensor. The temperature sensor readings are displayed from the microcontroller to the PC into the PLX-DAQ application as an interface. From the results of observations and calculations, the data obtained on the percentage of electrical energy dissipation into heat energy has 4 stages, that is on standby 8.9%, from the end of standby to operate at 1.0%, transition 0.2%, and ideal stable 0.1%-0% . After 20 minutes until finished operating shows an ideal stable state. This is due to the microcontroller heat dissipation and energy absorbed by the ambient is the same.</p> Sensus Wijonarko Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Study of Microbending Loss Single Mode Optic Fiber in Sand Powder Against Pressure <p>Research has been carried out to further investigate specifically the effect of sand powder, both the size of the sand grains and the thickness of the sand powder on the photodetector output as an advanced study of the single-mode optical fiber microbending loss theory in sand grains to pressure. This was done to investigate the response of optical fibers due to microbending loss to the load and determine the size of the sand particles that are most effectively used as a compiler of load sensors. The principle works to test the response of load sensors based on single-mode fiber optic microbending loss in the form of photodetector output when given a large variety of pressure. The method used in this research is to observe the reduction in the intensity of the light transmitted through optical fibers in the form of a voltage drop that is read by MMD that is connected to the photodetector. The reduced light intensity shows that the load sensor experiences optical attenuation of the laser as a light source with a wavelength of 1550 nm and a power of 1.47 mW. Microbending loss is caused by mechanical pressure that can change the direction of optical signal transmission and the radius of the curve is equal to or less than the diameter of a bare optical fiber. Observations were made using 12 load sensors with variations in the size of the sand grains in each diameter of the hose. The results of this study obtained the size of the most effective grains of sand providing microscopic curvature in the optical fiber that is 0.05 mm in terms of the correlation between the response of sensors with various diameters to changes in pressure.</p> Bambang Widiyatmoko, Mefina Y. Rofianingrum Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700 Dynamic Characterization of Macrobending Loss Optical Fiber-Based Load Sensor <p>The weight of vehicles passing through the road greatly affects road damage, so it is necessary to have a non-stop weighing system or Weight in Motion (WIM). In this study, the dynamic characterization of the WIM sensor was carried out based on the principle of optical fiber macrobending. In this study, a single-mode step-index optical fiber was used as the sensor material and a laser diode with a power of 5 mW and a wavelength of 1,550 nm as a light source. Characterization was carried out by running over the sensor using a motor with three variations of speed, namely 10 km/hour, 15 km/hour, and 20 km/hour. Two different conditions were also carried out, namely, the sensor was directly crushed and the sensor was reinforced in the form of a half-cylinder wooden beam. The test was carried out with three different types of sensors. From the observations, data shows that the addition of a beam can increase the accuracy of the reading as seen from the smaller the difference in the output voltage reading for the same type of sensor and vehicle speed. Besides that, there is a strengthening of the sensor resistance up to 10 times which is known from the sensor output voltage where the voltage at the addition of the beam is 1/10 of the reading without the beam. This is due to an increase in the sensor area exposed to the load.</p> Bambang Widiyatmoko, Mefina Y. Rofianingrum Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Technomaterials Physics Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700