International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism (IJAU) is peer-reviewed journal that published article that is concerned with Architectural Theory and Critic, Building Technology, Development Studies, Economic Growth and Development, Heritage and Built Environment, Human and Society, Organization and Management, Physical Environment, Quality of Life, Spatial Change &amp; Geographic Information Technologies, Sustainable Built Environment, Town Planning dan Urban Design.</p> en-US dwira.nirfalini@usu.ac.id (Dr. Dwira Nurfalini) dickyandrea45@gmail.com (Dicky Andrea, ST, M.T) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 23:31:39 +0700 OJS 3.2.0.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Seasonal Patterns of Foreign Tourist Visits to Samosir https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8681 <p>The seasonal pattern of tourist visits is an important factor to consider when developing tourism marketing policies. This study attempts to determine seasonal trends of visitor visits to Samosir over the last three years using the seasonality ratio, Gini coefficients, and seasonality index as calculating methods.. This research shows several things. initial, tourist visits to Samosir show an insignificant level of variation, and similar patterns of seasonal variation are found in 2018, 2019, and 2020. Second, tourist visits to Samosir have a relatively even distribution per month with low seasonality or the difference between tourist visits. foreign countries per month have a negligible difference in worth Third, the peak season for tourist visits to Simanindo occurs in January, June, and December, with a significant increase over the preceding month, and the decline slows as the off-peak season approaches. As a result, specific resource allocation and marketing tactics are required to optimize each seasonal phase</p> Farhan Bagas Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8681 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Analysis of Community Participation in Sustainable Tourism Development in Simanindo Sub-District https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8680 <p>The abundance of natural resources&nbsp; and the expansive beauty of nature make Simanindo a district with great potential for tourism development. This tourism potential was later developed by the&nbsp; Samosir Regency government and used as a sector capable of bringing foreign exchange to the country and society. Tourism development can begin from planning to management or utilization&nbsp; stages and evaluation of results. All these phases are inseparable from the roles and contributions of multiple parties, especially the communities surrounding the tourist destination. This shows that&nbsp; community involvement is an important issue for the success of future tourism development programs. The survey was conducted through a qualitative approach. This study explains and explains the symptoms and trends in the focus of the study. In the first focus, the research method was performed through the collection of key data, and in the second focus, the data was collected through observations, detailed interviews, and focus group discussions. The results of this literature review show that community involvement in tourism progress &nbsp;is influence by internal and external factors that can affect the development of the tourism industry and the standard of living of&nbsp; local communities. The details of this literature study focus on the form of participation and influencing factors, support and hinder the process of community participation in tourism development</p> Rara Ayu Rati Kumala Dewi, Nurlisa Ginting Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8680 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Economic Status of the Tourism Sector during the COVID 19 Pandemic at Lake Toba Parapat https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8679 <p>Parapat is the main gateway to Samosir Island and is often referred to as Parapat Tourism City. The presence of Lake Toba with its natural beauty makes the surrounding area a priority object and tourist attraction (ODTW) in North Sumatra. Currently, the Lake Toba area is designated as the National Tourist Destination (DPU) in North Sumatra. At the beginning of 2020, the world was shaken by the presence of the Covid-19 virus outbreak. The Indonesian government has also acted to contain the spread of Covid-19 by implementing&nbsp; the policy "Enforcement of Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement (PPKM)". The existence of these social restrictions has led to the stagnation&nbsp; of the tourism industry. The state of Indonesia's tourism economy, especially Parapat, remains volatile due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to investigate the economic situation of the tourist destinations of Parapat in the Covid-19 pandemic. This study uses a qualitative study with a descriptive approach. The data collection techniques used in this study include observational studies and literature studies. Looking at the economy of the tourism sector based on the WTO's Tourism Baseline Index for tourism destinations, there are three parameters: business investment in tourism, income from the tourism sector, and public spending. According to the survey, in 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic and the government's implementation of the Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement (PPKM) caused the decline of various economic sectors in the tourism industry</p> Raisha Ghadati Raudina, Anthoni Veery Mardianta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8679 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Typology of Waterfront Settlement in The Sibolahotang Street Balige https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8678 <p>Based on bathymetric measurements (Lukman 2010) the circumference of Lake Toba is 428.7 km. Toba Samosir regency coastline length is 115.8 km or 24.7% of the total length of Lake Toba’s coastline. Balige district as the capital of Toba Samosir Regency has a density level of 49023 people/km2. With a large population and the highest density level in Toba Samosir regency, residential areas spread from the center to the outskirts of the Balige district. Along with technological advances in the current era of globalization, the potential for tourism in Indonesia is growing rapidly. Residents who live on the shores of Lake Toba compete in the tourism sector by establishing various types of inns, restaurants and various recreational areas along the shores of Lake Toba. Each waterfront settlement on Sibolahotang Street has different typology from one another waterfront settlement. By observing the waterfront settlement typology, this research is carried out so that an appropriate planning and designing towards the settlement can be done in the future</p> Rizky Annisa Lestari Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8678 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Traditional Settlement Patterns on The Parapat Girsang Sipangan Bolon District https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8676 <p>Settlement is one of the important elements including basic needs. Humans live their lives in the chosen area. Cultural and historical factors are factors that can form a settlement. Parapat is a village in the Girsang Sipangan Bolon sub-district, Simalungun Regency, North Sumatra. This village is one of the accesses to Lake Toba which is about 48 km from Pematangsiantar City. Parapat is one of the important stopover points of Jalan Raya Lintas Sumatera and has a lot of potentials, including the traditional ones in it. This research was conducted using qualitative methods through aerial map analysis to identify settlement patterns formed in Parapat. Through this research, it will be known the pattern formed in the Parapat sub-district in the context of geographical conditions as well as local social and cultural conditions</p> Annisa Widhiyanti Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8676 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Revitalizing Outbound Creative Village Based on Place Attachment https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8675 <p>Creative Village is a rural outbound camp area that has a traditional concept. The traditional games in this area are playing kites, jumping rope, marbles, stilts, Sodor carts, bezel balls, shadow puppets, and so on. This tourist area is located in the countryside, away from highways and noise. This study aims to revitalize the area so that its utilization can be more optimal. The method used is qualitative, namely direct observation in the research area. The phenomenon in the area has not been fully utilized in terms of its potential. The conditions that occur are things that are considered potentially unused. The revitalization area uses the Place Attachment theory as the basis, the theory of outdoor design as a reflection of the needs of the tourist area, and Kevin Lynch's theory will be used to determine what is considered attractive and has the potential to be developed or eliminated. This result was obtained from the revitalization of the area as a tourism village and tourism object in the Deli Serdang Regency.&nbsp;</p> Prahmita Karima, D. Lindarto Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8675 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Disability-Friendly Flats with Ecology Architecture Approach https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8674 <p>A disability-friendly flat is a vertical residence that can be accessed and used by everyone including persons with disabilities and the elderly. The implementation of access in vertical buildings that are friendly to people with disabilities has not become a particular concern, especially in Indonesia. Hence, they still experience difficulties and obstacles in carrying out their activities. Disability-friendly flats located in an urban area and close to various public facilities aim to accommodate the problem of the high demand for housing in urban communities, overcome the problem of limited land and green space, provide easy access and achievement, and also realize the life of disability users that is more qualified, fair, physically and mentally prosperous, independent, and dignified. This flat was designed by using an Ecological Architecture approach to decrease environmental issues and problems in an urban area, also create comfort and independence for disability users through the application of these ecological principles that applied to building zones, materials, vegetation, and rainwater that can stimulate the human senses to recognize or identified place. The research method uses descriptive qualitative methods and data collection is obtained through field surveys, comparative studies, and literature studies. The design of this flat considered the vertical access inside the building by providing facilities such as stairs, ramps, and lifts to make it easier for all flat users, including persons with disabilities and the elderly</p> Cyndi Natalia Hutabarat, Nelson M Siahaan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8674 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Study of Chinese Architectural Design in Temple Building (Case Study: Maha Dana Temple Tebing Tinggi) https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8673 <p>Chinese Architecture is one of the architectural styles widely implemented in Indonesia, especially in the small town of Tebing Tinggi, Sumatera Utara. This can be seen from various places of worship or temples, houses belonging to the people of Chinese descent, and other buildings, one of which is in the Maha Dana Temple in Tebing Tinggi. Maha Dana Temple applies a relatively aspect of Chinese architecture, which can be seen in some of the Fengshui applications used, spatial planning patterns, building styles, building structures, and decorations. The purpose of this research is to identify the Chinese architecture aspects or elements that is implemented in the Maha Dana Temple. The research method used is descriptive-comparative qualitative research, which produces data describing what elements of Chinese architecture are applied to the Maha Dana Temple building. The information was obtained through observation and documentation in the field. This study aimed to examine and identify the application and meaning of Chinese architecture aspects in the Maha Dana Temple building in Tebing Tinggi. The research results are expected to benefit science, as a study that can be used as a reference in identifying aspects of Chinese architecture design, especially at the Maha Dana Temple in Tebing Tinggi.</p> Vinky Rahman, Sundari Setya Ningsih Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8673 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Revitalizing the former Tobacco ripening area PTPN II (Designing Deli Tobacco Museum and Hostel) https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8672 <p>The PTPN II Medan area, located on Jalan Pertempuran, is an Industrial Reserve Area with the potential to be preserved. The lack of effort to protect and preserve historical areas is one factor causing the lack of public knowledge about historical areas in Medan City. In this design, the former tobacco ripening warehouse is revitalized with the Adaptive Reuse concept. The old warehouse building will be re-functioned as the Deli Tobacco Museum to revive the building's historical value. However, there was a consideration of the need for location and respect; besides the Museum building, there were also other building design functions, one of which was the Hostel. The research method used is qualitative. Qualitative methods, namely, 1) data collection. 2) Design Analysis. 3) Design Concept. Concepts can be created through user needs, environment, analyzes, and studies that have been carried out, problems, and solutions found. Procurement of the Deli Tobacco Museum and Hostel is a solution to increase the community's knowledge and interest to learn about the history that has existed in Medan. The Museum and Dormitory building is designed with a more modern appearance. Still, it maintains the historical values ​​in the area to educate museum visitors about the important part of Medan City that is needed and believed to be able to repair and revive the area and improve the city's economy and tourism industry.</p> Rudolf Sitorus, Indah Novi Rahmatika Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8672 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Study on the Application of Biophilic Architecture in the Design of Creative Industry Center Buildings https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8671 <p>The era of globalization has made it easier for the Indonesian people to access various information that has changed the way people view the education system, especially in the creative industry sector. Creative industries are industrial products that go through the process of developing creative ideas to produce innovative products. But the problem that often occurs is that there are no creative ideas due to the unsupportive atmosphere of the space. Biophilic architecture creates areas that can help everyone focus, improve physical and mental health, improve mood, help reduce stress, provide a positive physiological response, arouse curiosity, refresh memory and problem-solving skills, and need exploration. The method used in this study is a descriptive analysis method with a qualitative approach, with the initial step of collecting data in physical, non-physical data, and application development regulations through observation of the design site and literature review. This study aims to find out how the application of biophilic designs in creative industrial buildings creates a creative environment and optimizes human needs for green open spaces based on theoretical studies. This research will produce design concepts that can be input for the Medan city government</p> Febry Rizky Alvina, Sri Gunana Sembiring Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8671 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Economic Hotel And A Culinary Center Sustainable Architecture Approach https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8670 <p><em>The Kwala Bekal area in Medan is one area included in the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) development project which, according to the book The Next American Metropolis, is categorized as a commercial area [<a href="#Pet93">1</a>]. Where urban development focuses on public transportation such as public transportation, buses, and trains and minimizing private vehicles. In this case, the designer will discuss how to design hotel buildings and culinary centers using the concept of Sustainable Architecture. The design problem found in planning and designing buildings following the functions of hotels and culinary centers. The aims and objectives of project planning are to design economical hotel buildings and culinary centers on an elongated site and Implementing the applications of Sustainable themes into the building. The methodology used in this design is data collection methods, design approaches, and analysis methods. From the results of research on the design concept, existing and placement of the building period, it was found that the Kwala Bekal City, which is in the Medan Tuntungan sub-district, was a development project by P.T Propenas Nusa Dua which had become a master plan design for the embryo of the new city of Kwala Bekal. So that, the completion of the construction of an economical hotel &amp; culinary center can complement residential facilities in the commercial area</em></p> Esto Pedro Laia, Achmad Delianur Nasution Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8670 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Physical and Non-Physical Factors Analysis of The Sukaramai Medan Traditional Market and Their Effect On The Area Accessibility Conditions https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8669 <p>Sukaramai Medan Traditional Market has several problems that happened during its development. One of the crucial issues is congestion caused mainly by traders who use the road to sell. From the compilation of data, Sukaramai Medan Traditional Market shows that it is getting busier and chaotic. Still, so far, there has been no significant improvement even though it interferes with user activity. This research was conducted to determine the problems in Sukaramai Medan Traditional Market based on physical and non-physical factors that affect access used as a guideline for improvement to create a more convenient area for market users. This study uses mixed methods between quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection used in the form of observations on the existing condition and surveying respondents that related. The several variables observed in the analysis are market location, trading rooms, and merchant mobility. Several physical and non-physical factors associated with congestion with the lowest value can be used as the main focus in improvement. It is the market setup and item type arrangement for physical factors, while for non-physical factors, it relates to parking area and circulation. Suppose the problems on some of these factors can be resolved. In that case, it will approach the criteria of an excellent traditional market so that the accessibility of the surrounding area will be better</p> Elisabeth Simorangkir, Novrial Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8669 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Performance Indicators for Energi Management of Tourism in The Pangururan District Kabupaten Samosir https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8668 <p>. The Lake Toba area is a national tourist area visited by various tourists both from within and outside the country, and is included in the 88 national tours which are the parent of tourism development in Indonesia. One of the infrastructures that must be considered is the availability of electrical energy sources in the tourist area of ​​Lake Toba. Pangururan District as one of the tourism and administrative areas in the Lake Toba area must have sufficient electrical energy needs and become sustainable tourism. The purpose of this study was to examine the Performance of Tourism Energy Management in Pangururan District, Samosir Regency with an approach to analyzing the level of energy use and conservation, energy management programs, and utilization of renewable energy sources. The research method used is direct field observation and literature study, both theory and supporting documents in the research, which is then analyzed by interpreting the data obtained based on the theory and applicable policies. The results of this study are to identify that the need for electrical energy in the tourist area in the Pangururan sub-district is quite evenly distributed and the need for electrical energy is also met, but in the tourist area in the Pangururan sub-district conservation activities and the use of sustainable energy sources carried out by the government and the tourism business unit are still very low. a little. In addition, this research is expected to be a source of knowledge about Energy Management in the Tourism Sector.</p> Muhammad Haqqul Mulki , B O Y Marpaung Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8668 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Waste Water Management in Supporting Sustainable Tourism in Girsang Sipangan Bolon District https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8667 <p>Girsang Sipangan Bolon District, Simalungun Regency, is one of the entrance gates to Lake Toba and has an area of ​​126 km2 with a population of 18,915 people. Parapat Village is the largest sub-district in this sub-district, and has long been famous for its tourism. Defining and Using Indicators is the main component in the process of planning and managing sustainable tourism, so this will use the main issues and indicators of sustainable tourism development in a tourist destination. This study examines waste management in Girsang Sipangan Bolom District in an effort to support Lake Toba. Implementing policies by reducing the use of chemicals that can harm the environment, reducing waste to the environment and the use of waste disposal systems, and supervising newly established facilities.</p> Dewi Arini, Anthoni Veery Mardianta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8667 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Spatial Structure of The Leisure Zone In The Girsang Sipangan Bolon District Urban Waterfront https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8666 <p>Girsang Sipangan Bolon is one of the sub-districts under the administration of Simalungun Regency whose territory is partly directly adjacent to the shores of Lake Toba. The development concept of a waterfront culture for sustainable tourism is an importhing to do in this area. Tourism development that only relies on scenic beauty of the landscape will have difficult time to sustain for the future when there is degradation on environmental quality and boredom of visitors to the scenery presented. Identification of the spatial structure of Girsang Sipangan Bolon, morphology and circulation of the waterfront area and the typical type of development of the waterfront area are the objectives to be sought in this paper by using observation and geographic imaging of the area, whether are supports the concept of waterfront culture. Lack of open space to develop waterfront cultural activities, the morphology of the coastal area is not well planned where buildings with dense masses and heights block the view, and the area is more characterized by a recretional waterfront that relies more on the private sector. These characteristics are expected to provide more understanding and consideration for future development to emphasizing the concept of waterfront culture as an attraction and improving the morphology and circulation of the area that support sustainable waterfront tourism</p> Khairul Azhar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Architecture and Urbanism https://talenta.usu.ac.id/ijau/article/view/8666 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0700