International Journal of Cultural and Art Studies <p>International Journal of Culture and Art Studies (online) or International Journal of Cultural and Art Studies (print) abbreviated as IJCAS is an academic, open access, and peer-reviewed journal founded and first published in 2018 by TALENTA Publisher and organized by Talenta Publisher &amp; <a href="">the Faculty of Cultural Sciences</a>, <a href="">University of Sumatera Utara</a>, Indonesia. It welcomes full research articles in the field of humanities from the following subject area: macro &amp; micro linguistics, traditional culture, oral tradition, literarure, history, tourism, local wisdom, etc.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="" /></strong></a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="" /></strong></a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>e-ISSN <a href="">2654-3591</a> </strong><strong>p-ISSN <a href="">2623-1999</a></strong></p> Talenta Publisher en-US International Journal of Cultural and Art Studies 2623-1999 The Identity Issue of the Colonized and the Colonizer in Cloud Nine by Caryl Churchill <p>One of the significant points in post-colonial literature is identity issues. The analysis of these identity issues should be focused not only on the colonized character but also the colonialist. It is obvious why post-colonial scholars are concerned with the colonized as they are the victims of colonialism. However, the colonizer must also face complex issues of identity when arriving in the colonial place. The purpose of this article is to examine the identity issues undergone by Joshua, the colonial subject, and by Clive, the colonizer, with reference to <em>Cloud Nine </em>by Caryl Churchill in the colonial period. The concept of hybridity by Homi Bhabha can explain the issue of Joshua’s identity since he has “double” portrays of the identity as legacy of colonialism. Bhabha created the terms the “third space” or the “<em>in-between</em>” to describe the condition of the colonized people. Clive as the colonizer used to be a person without particular authority in his own country before arriving to the colonial land. Suddenly, his identity has shifted into someone who has privileges and authority. The colonizer’s identity is not complete without the colonized. The colonized and the colonizer depend on each other. The colonized and the colonizer’s identities will be fragmented if one of them is missing.</p> Liza Putri Katherine Clayton Copyright (c) 2020 Liza Putri, Katherine Clayton 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 4 1 1 8 10.32734/ijcas.v4i1.3620 Contemporary Discourse and the Oblique Narrative of Avant-gardism in Twentieth-Century Nigerian Art <p>The history of Twentieth Century Nigerian art is characterized by ambiguities that impede understanding of the underlying modernist philosophies that inspired modern art from the 1900s. In the past five decades, scholars have framed the discourse of <em>Contemporary Nigerian Art</em> to analyze art created during that period in Africa starting with Nigeria in order to differentiate it from that of Europe and America. However, this quest for differentiation has led to a mono-narrative which only partially analyze modernist tendencies in modern Nigerian art, thus, reducing its impact locally and globally. Adopting <em>Content Analysis</em> and <em>Modernism </em>as methodologies, this research subjected literature on Twentieth Century Nigerian art to critical analysis to reveal its grey areas, as well as draw upon recent theories by Chika Okeke-Agulu, Sylvester Ogbechie, Olu Oguibe and Okwui Enwezor to articulate the occurrence of a unique Nigerian avant-gardism blurred by the widely acclaimed discourse of contemporary Nigerian art. Findings reveal that the current discourse unwittingly frames Twentieth Century Nigerian art as a time-lag reactionary mimesis of Euro-American modernism. This research contends that such narrative blocks strong evidences of avant-garde tendencies identified in the works of Aina Onabolu, Ben Enwonwu, Uche Okeke and others, which exhibited intellectual use of the subversive powers of art for institutional/societal interrogation. Drawing upon modernist theories as a compass for analyzing the works of the aforementioned, this paper concludes that rather than being a mundane product of contemporaneity, Twentieth Century Nigerian art was inspired by decolonization politics and constituted a culture-specific avant-gardism in which art was used to enforce change. Thus, a new modern art discourse is proposed that will reconstruct Twentieth Century Nigerian art as an expression of modernism parallel to Euro-American modernism.</p> Clement Akapng Copyright (c) 2020 Clement Akapng 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 4 1 9 23 10.32734/ijcas.v4i1.3671 The Role of Mandarin in Indonesia's Tourism Sector <p>Indonesia is well-known for its natural beauty and cultural diversity. This becomes an extraordinary attraction for Indonesian tourism sector in which the government has also put their attention to. Tourists from others counties like to visit Indonesia. They speak in many international languages, include Mandarin. However, there are still fewer human resources who respond to it. The skill that must be possessed to prepare and improve a good image for tourists is the mastery of Mandarin. Tourism agencies who should have mastered Mandarin include travel agents, hotel employees, tour guides, and tourism practitioners. The minimum target for mastering Mandarin languages covers: simple conversations related to the work done, as well as the mastery of basic grammar and conversations. The mastery of Mandarin, as well as the understanding of the culture of Chinese tourists, is expected to provide maximum service and to create a good impression or image that improves the Indonesian tourism industry.</p> Dian Prasetyo Adi Ayu Rinada Copyright (c) 2020 Dian Prasetyo Adi, Ayu Rinada 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 4 1 24 30 10.32734/ijcas.v4i1.3793 Logical Relations Used in Anak Boru Saninain Simalungun Wedding Ceremony <p>The aims of this study is to find out the types of logical relations and the use of logical relations <em>Anak Boru Sanina </em>(ABS) in Simalungun wedding ceremony. This study was conducted by applying descriptive qualitative method. The source of data was taken from the utterances of <em>Anak Boru Sanina </em>(ABS) in Simalungun wedding ceremony. The result of this research was types of logical relations can be found in <em>Anak Boru Sanina </em>(ABS) are paratactic enhancement (34.78 %), hypotactic enhancement (30.43%), paratactic extension (14.49 %), paratactic elaboration (11.59%), hypotactic elaboration (4.34 %), hypotactic extension (2.89 %), and paratactic locution (1.44 %). Only seven of ten types of logical relations found in <em>Anak Boru Sanina </em>(ABS) utterances meanwhile three types that are missing are hypotactic locution, paratactic idea and hypotactic idea, because these types concern the relation between a mental or verbal clause and the content which its quotes or reported.</p> Nurhasanah Purba Copyright (c) 2020 Nurhasanah Purba 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 4 1 31 41 10.32734/ijcas.v4i1.3720 Possessive Expressions in Javanese <p>This study aims to describe the characteristics of Possessive Construction in Javanese and relations of expressions between Possessor (PR) and Possessum (PS). The source of data are texts in Javanese from <em>Djaka Lodang </em>Magazine Volume XXII, XXIV, XXIX year 2017 and <em>Panjebar Semangat </em>Magazine Volume 29, 19, and 20 from May until July 2018 which contains Possessive Constructions in Javanese also informant who is a native speaker of Javanese. The data are analyzed using <em>Simak</em> Method, with base <em>Sadap </em>technic and advance <em>Simak-Bebas libat cakap</em> technic and <em>Catat </em>technic, meanwhile technic for analyzing the data used are <em>Agih</em> Method to determine the Possessive Construction dan <em>Padan</em> Method to determine the relation between PR and PM elements. Javanese Possessive Constructions marked with clitics <em>-e</em> or ­<em>-ne</em> as possessive marker. The results show Javanese Possessive Constructions meaning exists at polymorphemic level, phrase level, and clause level. On polymorphemic level, possessive meaning expressed by nouns followed by enclitics persona pronoun. On Phrase level, possessive meaning expressed by noun which followed by noun persona and noun followed by noun. Persona pronoun acts as PR. Noun which acts as PR are (<em>Ilahi</em>), animal, plants and (concrete) noun. On clause level possessive meaning expressed by verb which occupy predicate (P). Noun occupying subject in clause recognized as possession (PM). In Javanese, it is found Possessive Construction which sates the relationship of proprietary in the form of; Possessive Construction in which PM elements is non-humane noun and PR elements is humane noun or persona pronoun, PM element is humane noun and PR element is humane (self-name) or persona pronoun, and PM element is non-living noun and PR element also non-living noun.</p> Kamilatun Baroroh Mulyadi Mulyadi Copyright (c) 2020 Kamilatun Baroroh, Mulyadi Mulyadi 2020-04-28 2020-04-28 4 1 42 53 10.32734/ijcas.v4i1.3848