International Journal of Ecophysiology <p>International Journal of Ecophysiology is a peer-reviewed twice a year journal published by TALENTA (Universitas Sumatera Utara's Journals Publisher) and managed by Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science (Biology Department), Universitas Sumatera Utara.</p> <p>The related topics are as follows:These are the main branches of biology: Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Biological engineering, Biogeography, Bioinformatics, Biolinguistics, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell biology, Chronobiology, Cognitive biology, Conservation biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Ecology, Evolutionary biology, Genetics, Immunology, Marine biology (or biological oceanography), Microbiology, Molecular biology, Nanobiology, Neuroscience, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Phytopathology, Psychobiology, Quantum biology, Systems biology, Structural biology, Theoretical biology, Zoology.</p> en-US (Syafruddin Ilyas) (Syafruddin Ilyas) Sun, 28 May 2023 19:30:49 +0700 OJS 60 Effect Of Smoking Behaviour and The BMI On Ph Levels Of Saliva and Salivary Amylase Activity Among Male Students <p>Smoking behaviour has a negative impact on health, especially oral health. One of the motivations for consuming tobacco cigarettes is stress condition. Many believe that smoking could reduce their stress. We are using purposive random sampling targeting male students who smoke at the faculty of social and political science. We find 40 individual smoking students as respondents. We measure the pH levels of saliva using universal indicators and then salivary amylase activity from the decrease of substrate (amylum) concentration. Here we find that smoking students have significantly more low salivary pH levels and also salivary amylase activity than control (non-smoking students). This could be an early diagnosis of the oral health issue. However, stress conditions could be indicated by relatively high salivary amylase activity. Our result predicted that smoking perhaps reduces the stress of the students because smoking lowers the salivary amylase rate. Moreover, stress conditions do not influence the saliva flow rate. We also use questionnaires to collect body weight and height to measure the BMI (Body mass index). The BMI data also shows most of the smoking student has a normal category of BMI. Nevertheless, there are no significant differences in Salivary pH levels and amylase activity among the BMI category. A previous study also reported that BMI has no correlation with saliva flow rate. We suggest the university should give education about the&nbsp; negative effect of smoking</p> Yurnaliza Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effect of Incubation Time on Amylase Enzyme Activity in Cassava Tape <p>Cassava tape is a product made by a fermentation process that requires the help of microorganisms. The tape fermentation process involves the enzyme amylase. Amylase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into simple sugars. Enzyme activity can be calculated by measuring the amount of product formed, or by calculating the amount of substrate reduction in a given unit of time. This study aims to determine the effect of incubation time on amylase enzyme activity in cassava tape. The research method used was the descriptive experimental method. The results of the experiment showed a reduction in the substrate due to amylase enzyme activity. The highest percentage of substrate reduction occurred at 48 hours incubation time and the lowest percentage at 144 hours incubation time. An organoleptic test was conducted with color, aroma, texture, and taste parameters conducted on 30 panelists. Incubation time affected the percentage of substrate reduction and organoleptic parameters</p> Yurnaliza Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Effect of Incubation Time on Amylase Enzyme Activity in Sticky Rice Tape <p>Indonesia uses fermentation as a common method of food processing. Tape ketan is one of the foods produced using the fermentation process. The enzyme amylase, which hydrolyzes carbohydrates (starch) into sugar, is involved in the fermentation process of sticky rice tape. Many factors affect the activity of the amylase enzyme. Incubation time is one of them. The length of incubation can also impact the tape's sweetness, color, texture, and scent. The 48- hour incubation period had the maximum amylase activity. Organoleptic testing, meanwhile, revealed a range of color, scent, texture, and taste. We'll talk about how the amylase enzyme's activity and incubation period relate to the color, flavor, texture, and aroma of sticky rice tape in this article</p> Yurnaliza Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Sleep Late Impact on The Salivary pH Levels and Amylase Activity among Male Students who has Different BMI Category <p>The lack of sleep could damage the circadian rhythm, which has implications for health issues. Here we conduct a survey on Students from the Faculty of Social and Political using purposive random sampling, by targeting student who has sleep duration low than 8 hours. We are using a questionnaire to gain information about the sleeping duration and also the Body Mass Index (BMI). Moreover, we also collect saliva samples from the students. pH Universal Indicators are used to measure the pH levels of saliva. We predict the salivary amylase activity by measuring the decrease of the substrate. We found about 27 students have a sleep duration of fewer than 6 hours. Then 19 students have a sleep duration of about 8 - 6 hours. Finally, only 5 students have a sleep duration of more than 8 hours. Our study suggests there is no significant difference between the 3 categories of sleep duration on saliva pH levels and salivary amylase activity. The same for the BMI categories. Although there are small differences sleep duration and BMI is not the major factor influencing the pH levels and amylase activity in saliva</p> Yurnaliza Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 An overview of the diversity of Asian Elephants in Indonesia in Terms of Their Genetics <p>There are two species diversity of Asian elephants in Indonesia, namely: Sumatran elephant (<em>Elephas maximus sumatranus</em>) and Borneo elephant (<em>Elephas maximus borneensis</em>). This literature study aims to identify and analyze the diversity of Asian elephants in Indonesia, namely: Sumatran elephants (<em>Elephas maximus sumatranus</em>) and Borneo elephants (<em>Elephas maximus borneensis</em>) as seen from their genetics (Microsatellites). This elephant is listed in the red list book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) from precarious to critically endangered. Meanwhile, the Borneo Elephant (<em>Elephas maximus borneensis</em>) is included in the IUCN red list with the endangered category.&nbsp; The Amely gene of the Sumatran elephant's Y chromosome is used to trace offspring paternally. Meanwhile, Borneo elephants have low genetic diversity due to the low average number of alleles and heterezygotes and genetic research on Borneo elephants is also still small. For this reason, it is necessary to make further conservation efforts to maintain the Borneo elephant species that have unique characteristics. This Borneo elephant is a unique species, because it is smaller or dwarf in size than other elephants, with straight tusks and has a long tail</p> Syafruddin Ilyas Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Does Chitala Lopis Really Extinct? An Overview And DNA Barcode (COI) Comparison <p>The Asian Featherback Fish Or Ikan Belida Is One Of The Most Important Species Of Fish In Indonesia That Is Utilised By Locals As A Food Ingredient. Unfortunately, One Of The Species (<em>Chitala Lopis</em>) Has Already Been Reported Extinct By The IUCN. Nevertheless, Many Publications After That Still Claimed That <em>Chitala Lopis</em> Is Extant. We Study 28 COI Partial Sequences Of <em>Chitala Lopis </em>From NCBI. The Result Showed That Most Of These Sequences Were Not The Actual <em>Chitala Lopis</em>. It Is Probably Either <em>Chitala Hypselonotus</em> Or <em>Chitala Borneensis</em>. This Prediction Is Based On The Unmatch Between The Distribution Of <em>Chitala Lopis</em> COI Sample Origin And The Actual Habitat Of <em>Chitala Lopis</em>, Which Is Endemic To Java Island. However, There Is Also An Article That Reports If <em>Chitala Lopis</em> Is Tried To Be Cultivated. The Misinterpretation Is Perhaps Because <em>Chitala</em> Spp. Is A Complex Species, Which Has Very Similar Morphology. More Study On Molecular Chitala Sp. In Indonesia Is Still Needed To Complete The Unclear Status Of Extinct Chitala Lopis</p> Syafruddin Ilyas Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Identify and analyze the Diversity of Ant in Indonesia, Diversity of Ants at the Universitas Sumatera Utara and Diversity of Ants at The Universitas Andalas <p>One of the diversity of subfamily level ants is Myrmicinae. Myrmicinae are distributed throughout the world in all major habitats except ecosystem areas with low diversity indicating pressure that will affect ecosystem quality. The types of ants obtained from the location of the USU campus found 9 species consisting of 5 subfamilies as follows: Paracidris sp. Paedalgus sp. Solenopsis sp. Oligomyrmex sp. The total ant diversity index (H') on the USU campus included moderate diversity (H') 1.25, the genus with the highest distribution frequency at all research sites was Solenopsis sp, namely 50% Oligomyrmex sp, a genus with a low distribution frequency of 15%. The results of research at Andalas University, the total number of species accumulated in this study was the highest among other studies reported from Sumatra. The Quadra protocol is the standard method for rapid research of ants. Collecting the prominent number of ant species listed in this study is also effective for detecting frequent and abundant ant species. The analysis of the data obtained shows that it is possible to record more species of ants considering that field exploration continues</p> Juriyah Astika Dewi Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Molecular Characteristics <p>Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignancy that occurs on keratinocyte cells that have the potential to spread through lymphatic tissue or blood vessels. These carcinomas develop as a result of a series of molecular factors, which are influenced by individual genetic factors as well as environmental exposure to carcinogens. The evaluation of the prognosis and treatment plan for OSCC are mainly based on the clinical picture of the tumor or the TNM classification (T, tumor; N, lymph nodes or glands; M, metastases). The disadvantage of this diagnostic technique is that it does not consider the biological properties of the tumor, molecular characteristics, or tumor location, so it is deemed incapable of predicting patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, radiographic findings, and histopathological features of OSCC to help those concerned make the correct diagnosis. We use references from the last ten years article to obtain an up-to-date data. Based on our literacy study, we discovered that the presence of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) and keratoacanthoma distinguishes OSCC from many other oral cavity carcinomas (CA). The amount of P53 expression in tissues experiencing PEH and CA, as well as the integration of several other pro-cancer protein expressions, can be used to detect severity early. We can conclude that early detection of OSCC should be done by assessing the expression of proteins that cause the severity of cancerous lesions so that suppression of these cancer-inducing proteins can be treated while the levels are still low</p> Syafruddin Ilyas Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Conservation Management : Study Of Turtle Conservation Pangumbahan Beach, Sukabumi <p>This article review Conservation Management research: Pangumbahan Beach Turtle Conservation Study, Sukabumi Regency. In this article, author discusses the conservation of the Green Turtle (<em>Chelonia mydas</em>). and a conservation area management system that refers to: Sustainable turtle conservation, an ecotourism-based conservation system and sustainable turtle habitat management on Pangumbahan beach, Sukabumi Regency</p> Muhammad Haikal Fahmi Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700 Ecology Of Pranajiwa Medicinal Plants (Euchresta horsfieldii (lesch.) benn.) In Bali And Lombok: (A Review) <p>This article is a review of the ecology of pranajiwa medicinal plants in Bali and Lombok. In this article, the author discusses the characteristics of pranajiwa's original habitat in Bali and Lombok, the abundance, habitat vegetation, and distribution of pranajiwa, as well as environmental factors that affect pranajiwa's habitat. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics of pranajiwa's natural habitat in Bali and Lombok to ensure long-term preservation and sustainable use of pranajiwa</p> Rafika Rizki Copyright (c) 2022 2022 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0700