International Journal of Ecophysiology <p>International Journal of Ecophysiology is a peer-reviewed twice a year journal published by TALENTA (Universitas Sumatera Utara's Journals Publisher) and managed by Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science (Biology Department), Universitas Sumatera Utara.</p> <p>The related topics are as follows:These are the main branches of biology: Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Biological engineering, Biogeography, Bioinformatics, Biolinguistics, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell biology, Chronobiology, Cognitive biology, Conservation biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Ecology, Evolutionary biology, Genetics, Immunology, Marine biology (or biological oceanography), Microbiology, Molecular biology, Nanobiology, Neuroscience, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Phytopathology, Psychobiology, Quantum biology, Systems biology, Structural biology, Theoretical biology, Zoology.</p> en-US (Syafruddin Ilyas) (Syafruddin Ilyas) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 22:53:21 +0700 OJS 60 WATER QUALITY PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY: A STUDY ON THE KUSHIARA RIVER <p>In Bangladesh around 7.5% of the fish is harvested from the rivers, being one of the main sources of fish in the country. The water quality of the river must be within standard values to maintain aquatic biodiversity. In this study, water quality, available spaces for fish, and socio-economic status of fishermen were analyzed to find their relationships in&nbsp;Kushiara&nbsp;River, Fenchuganj,&nbsp;Sylhet. Samples of water quality and fish species were collected from August 2017 to September 2021. At the same time, fishermen were surveyed to find out their economic status. The water quality analysis showed all the parameters analyzed (pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)) are within the range of international and Bangladesh standards for surface water. The pH, DO, BOD, COD, TDS was respectively 7.1 - 7.99, 5.5 mg/l to 8.4 mg/l, 1 to 4.6 mg/l, 17 to 32 mg/l, 30 to 70 mg/l. Where the local standard is 6.5 - 8.5, more than 5 mg/l, less than 6 mg/l, 17 to 32 mg/l for pH, DO and BOD. The international standard is less than 34.2 mg/l. and 30 to 70 mg/l for COD and TDS in that order. A total of 40 species of fish are recorded in 2017 and 49 in 2021. The average income of a fisherman was 3 USD to 15 USD in the off pick season (December- February), and 7 USD to 30 USD in the peak season (September-November). The fish merchant's daily income was 4 USD to 20 USD in the&nbsp;off-peak&nbsp;season and 7 USD to 30 USD in the peak season. It is concluded that the water quality was adequate for fish diversity and to sustain the socioeconomic condition of the fishermen and fish traders in the&nbsp;Kushiara&nbsp;River.</p> Monjur Morshed, Abdullah Al Fatta, Binay Kumar Chakraborty, Tanvir Rahman Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Conflict Mitigation Practices and Conservation Awareness of Orangutans: A Case Study from Tangkahan Ecotourism, Leuser Ecosystem, Indonesia <p class="TP-Abstract-Text" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US">Killing orangutans in human-orangutan conflicts threatens their populations. Individuals with high conservation awareness tend to tolerate orangutans' crop foraging. In our study in Tangkahan ecotourism, Leuser Ecosystem, Indonesia, we examined local community mitigation methods and their understanding of orangutan conservation. We utilized a convenience sampling method for this study, primarily serving as a pilot study to test the questionnaire we had designed. This questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions used in semi-structured interviews. We conducted interviews with 16 respondents, all of whom willingly participated and allowed us to record their responses. Our findings revealed that the most commonly employed mitigation methods by the local community were the use of firecrackers and traditional crop guarding. Notably, these methods were non-lethal in nature, which aligns with the respondents' overall conservation awareness. All participants demonstrated knowledge of the protected status of orangutans, and some provided further insights into their rarity, endangerment, population decline, habitat degradation, and endemism. Their positive attitude likely stems from the impact of ecotourism.</span></p> Rahmadi Sitompul, Kaniwa Berliani, Stanislav Lhota Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0700 A REVIEW IN GENOMIC AND PRECISION MEDICINE ON CANCER IN INDONESIA <p><em>Genomic and precision medicine has been a new target on oncology field, as with the genomic study, we can develop the precised medicine. This studies was made to find the development of research on genomic and precision medicine on cancer in Indonesia. This study is conducted systematically to explore an update on genomic and precision medicine on cancer in Indonesia based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) to extend this scoping review. After further research and exploration, we found 7 literatures that shares the same inclusion criteria. From these seven literatures, we found that there is a significant development in this field of research, however most studies are about the detection of gene and has not develop research in treament or rehabilitation. Indonesia is a capable country to develop this field of research. With that being said, the encouragement and empowerment of researchs in Indonesia on genomic and precision medicine must be enchanced.</em></p> sry suryani widjaja, Rusdiana, Ashri Yudhistira Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Differences And Different Responses In Inflammation And Pneumonia (A Mini Review) <p class="TP-Abstract-Text" style="line-height: normal;">A major public health issue with high morbidity and short and long term mortality in all age groups worldwide, pneumonia is a typical acute respiratory infection that affects the alveoli and distal airways. Community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia are the two main categories of pneumonia. Pneumonia can be brought on by a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, respiratory viruses, and fungus. The incidence of these microbes varies greatly geographically. Pneumonia affects susceptible people more frequently, such as young children under the age of five and older persons with a history of chronic illnesses. Pathogen features play a less important influence in disease development than does the host immune response. Patients with pneumonia frequently exhibit respiratory and systemic symptoms, and radiological findings as well as clinical presentation are used to make the diagnosis. It is essential to identify the microorganisms that are causing the disease because delayed or ineffective antimicrobial therapy can have negative effects. The treatment of pneumonia will be enhanced by new antibiotic and non-antibiotic medicines, as well as quick and precise diagnostic tools that can identify bacteria and drug resistance.</p> Yulia Putri, Dina Keumala Sari, Yunita Sari Pane, Ririe Fachrina Malisie, Nuraiza Meutia, M. Ichwan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Antimicrobial Properties of Pliek U as Traditional Acehnese Fermented Spices <p>The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally has increased the burden of disease. The phenomenon demands urgency to explore new antimicrobial drugs, one of which is sourced from natural ingredient, spices. <em>Pliek U</em>, as one of the spices traditionally processed by Acehnese, has attracted researchers to explore its potential source for antimicrobial substances. The objective of this literature review is to explore the characteristic, production, chemical composition, and antimicrobial mechanism of <em>Pliek U</em>. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Google Scholar using the keywords "<em>Pliek U</em>”, “Coconut Flesh”, and “Antimicrobial”. The articles obtained were then screened based on predetermined criteria. The results of the analysis were displayed in tabular and narrative form. The final result was 8 main articles and 10 additional articles after screening 65 articles obtained from the database. <em>Pliek U</em> powder is traditionally produced and has unique characteristics that make it easy to recognize. <em>Pliek U</em> mechanism of action based on the chemical composition and the role of lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation process. Analysis shows that <em>Pliek U</em> is a promising antimicrobial source, so it needs to be researched and developed further in the pre-clinical to clinical phases.</p> Fauzi Satria, Tri Widyawati, Taufik Sungkar Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Insect Pest Diversity on Maize Farming at UPT Tanjung Selamat, Deli Serdang Regency: A Case Study <p>UPT Tanjung Selamat located in North Sumatra is one of significant corn farming areas in North Sumatra which currently faces disturbance from insects. This study investigates insect pest diversity in corn fields at two growth stages, 25 and 60 days after planting (DAP), within the UPT Tanjung Selamat area of Deli Serdang Regency. Yellow sticky traps were installed in designated sites as approaches to collect and identify insect pest community in the area. Our results showed that at 25 DAP, three pest species were identified, while at 60 DAP, seven species were recorded, showcasing higher diversity at the latter stage. The insect pest with the highest population density at both growth stages of maize is Cicadulina bipunctata, with 48.12 ind/m² at 60 DAP and 36.67 ind/m² at 25 DAP. The total insect pest density peaked at 60 DAP (61.44 individuals/m²) and reached its lowest at 30 DAP (49.38 individuals/m²). Similarly, the diversity index was highest at 60 DAP (1.283), contrasting with the lowest value at 25 DAP (0.652). The evenness index mirrored these trends, peaking at 60 DAP (0.659) and reaching its lowest at 25 DAP (0.593). The Sorensen similarity index indicated a 60% similarity between the two periods, reflecting relatively similar insect pest compositions. These findings highlight the dynamic nature of insect pest populations in maize fields at different growth stages, emphasizing the need for age-specific management strategies. This study contributes valuable insights for optimizing pest control measures and promoting sustainable corn production practices.</p> Ria Lanti Sinaga, Arlen Hanel Jhon, Erni Jumilawaty Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Feeding Activity of Heliotis armigera Hubner Larvae on Food Formulated with Ethanol Extracts of Bitter Melon Leaves (Momordica charantia L.), Galangal Leaves (Lactuna indica L.) and Adjuvant Agrestic <p>The research on the Feeding Activity of <em>Heliotis armigera</em> Hubner larvae&nbsp; on food formulated with ethanol extracts of bitter melon leaves (<em>Momordica charantia</em> L.), galangal leaves (<em>Lactuna indica</em> L.) and adjuvant agrestic has been conducted.&nbsp; This study used the ratio formulation of bitter melon and galangal&nbsp; (1:1, 1:2, 2:1), 1% adtjuvan agristik. The feeding activity was observed using the feeding method with several concentrations (0.00, 0.58, 1.16, 1.74, 2.32, 2.92) and 15 larvae for iterations using a completely randomized design (CRD). The data from the observations were analyzed using variance; if there were differences, it would proceed to the Duncan test of 5%. Insect feeding activity is influenced by food containing concentrations of 1.16% - 2.92% of a formulation (1:1, 1:2, 2:1) of bitter melon leaf extract, galangal leaf extract, and 1% agrestic adjuvant, leading to a decrease in insect growth rate (RGR). The insect's feeding ability (RCR), ability to convert consumed food into usable nutrients (ECI), and ability to digest food and utilize it (ECD) are also reduced. Conversely, the ability to digest insect food (AD) is increased. The best formulation and concentration are (2:1) and (1.74%).</p> Nursal, Arlen Hanel Jhon Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract and (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.) Glucomannan Effects on Obese White Rat Feed Intake and Body Weight <p>Obesity significantly raises the rates of illness and death in humans due to its association with several health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer, and colon cancer. This study aims to determine the effect of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf extract and glucomannan (<em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume.) on feed intake and body weight of obese white rats. This study used an experimental method with a pretest-posttest-only control grub design using 24 white male rats of the Wistar strain aged 8 weeks which were divided into 2 control groups, namely positive(K1) and negative(K2) and six treatment groups with extract doses <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves and glucomannan (<em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume.) 100mg/kgBW:100mg/kgBW(K3), 80mg/kgBW:120mg/kgBW(K4), 120mg/kgBW: 80mg/kgBW(K5), 50mg/kgBW:50mg/kgBW(K6), 40mg/kgBW:60mg/kgBW(K7), and 60mg/kgBW:40mg/kgBW(K8). Data analysis on body weight and feed intake used the SPSS ANOVA test and paired T-test. The results of the paired T-test (p&lt;0.05) showed that <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf extract and glucomannan (<em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume.) significantly reduced body weight and feed intake. In conclusion, administration of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf extract and glucomannan (<em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume.) in group K4 (80 mg/kgBW <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaf extract: 120 mg/kgBW glucomannan <em>Amorphophallus muelleri</em> Blume) can reduce feed intake (4.29 g) and body weight (36.67 g) effectively.</p> Dini Prastyo Wati, Endang Setyaningsih Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Molecular Docking Analysis of Potential Fatty Acid Compounds from Tiger Milk Mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus (Cooke) Ryvarden) Against Thioesterase Domain of Polyketide Synthase Enzyme in Aspergillus ssp. <p>Fungal growth, particularly from species like <em>Aspergillus</em>, poses significant economic, agricultural, and health risks to humans due to aflatoxin production. Consequently, inhibiting aflatoxin synthesis has become a critical objective. In this study, researchers targeted the thioesterase (TE) domain of the Polyketide synthase enzyme for in silico docking experiments using AutoDock Vina. The aim was to identify potential inhibitors that could selectively target the TE domain. Various fatty acids from Lignosus rhinocerus were employed for this purpose, including lauric acid, decanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid-methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, propionic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid. Decanoic acid showed promising results with binding energy close to the standard, forming two conventional hydrogen bonds, and exhibiting hydrophobic interactions during docking with the 3ILS protein. These findings suggest that decanoic acid could be utilized for inhibiting and controlling aflatoxin contamination in agricultural crops.</p> Riska Annisa Putri, Liana Dwi Sri Hastuti, Kiki Nurtjahja, Erman Munir, Yurnaliza Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700 The Effect Of Durian Skin Extract (Durio zibethinus Murr.) On Histological Features Of The Lungs Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induce 7,12-Dimetylbenz (Α) Anthracene (Dmba) <p>Durian peel extract is one of the raw materials for herbal medicine that contains large amounts of flavonoids, such as flavones and flavanols, which function as antiproliferative and antioxidant. The research was conducted from September 2022 to March 2023 which aimed to analyzed the effect of durian peel extract on the morphological and histological of rat lung induced by 7.12-Dimethylbenz (α) Anthracene (DMBA). The samples used were 24 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) with a weight ranging from 150 to 200 grams. This method of the study used a Completely Randomized Design consisting of six treatments and four replications. Each treatment group was divided into a negative control (normal); positive control (DMBA 10 mg/kgBW); P1 (DMBA 10 mg/kgBW + methotrexate 9 mg/kgBW), P2 (DMBA 10 mg/kgBW + durian peel extract 150 mg/kgBW); P3 (DMBA 10 mg/kgBW + durian peel extract 300 mg/kgBW), and P4 (DMBA 10 mg/kgBW + durian peel extract 450 mg/kgBW). The results of this research showed that durian peel extract had significant (p&lt;0.05) to improved the morphological damage (color, texture, weight, and volume) as well as its histology from the degeneration, inflammation, congestion, and necrosis, it was also had significant affect on the alveolar membrane, alveolar lumen and alveolar connections of the rat lung that induced by 7,12-Dimethylbenz (α) Anthracene (DMBA).</p> Syafruddin Ilyas, Jernih Nurani Hulu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ecophysiology Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0700