Sumatera Medical Journal 2023-09-01T22:01:58+07:00 Delfitri Munir Open Journal Systems <p><em>Sumatera Medical Journal</em> (SUMEJ), the official journal of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, publishes research covering the very latest development in medical sciences. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access, and fully-online journal that is issued at least three times a year since 2018, published by the TALENTA Publisher of Universitas Sumatera Utara.</p> <p>Authors are invited to submit original articles, review articles (systematic review and meta-analysis), and case report. All submitted manuscript will have a rigorous editorial check and peer-review assessment before a final decision. We commit to maintaining the ethical standards in medical publication, including the transparency in the review and publication process; authors’ retention of copyright; and the nature of open access publication with no restrictions on availability and dissemination.</p> <p><a href="">ISSN: 2622-9234</a></p> THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HABIT OF CONSUMING PORK LAWAR AND THE INCIDENCE OF TAENIASIS IN KEROBOKAN VILLAGE, BADUNG REGENCY, BALI 2023-08-17T22:18:20+07:00 Ayu gayatri Ayu Hemma Yulfi <p><strong>Abstract. Introduction: </strong><em>Taeniasis is an infection brought on by Taenia sp. Tapeworms</em><em>, one of which is</em> Taenia solium<em>, whose intermediate host is swine. Adult tapeworms develop in the intestines of the host (human) after consuming infected pork that was not properly prepared. Lawar babi is one of the Balinese dishes that utilises cooked, undercooked, or even uncooked pork. Balinese, including residents of Kerobokan Village, are accustomed to eating pork lawar. </em><strong>Objective:</strong> <em>To </em><em>d</em><em>etermine the relationship between the consumption of pork lawar and the incidence of taeniasis in the village of Kerobokan, Badung Regency, Bali. </em><strong>Methods:</strong><em> This </em><em>is a correlative categorical </em><em>research with a cross sectional design</em><em>. T</em><em>he study </em><em>population </em><em>is people in Kerobokan Village</em><em>, Bali Province</em><em>. </em><em>Using power of 0.8 strength of linear correlation of 0.25, and additional 10% for incomplete data, </em><em>we</em><em> obtain sample size of </em><em>128 people </em><em>who meet inclusion criteria</em><em>. Data was obtained by filling out a </em><em>set of validated </em><em>questionnaire. </em><strong>Results:</strong><em> Sixty-five </em><em>out of 128 respondents </em><em>(50.8%) </em><em>were found to possess a positive inclination towards the consumption of pork lawar, and </em><em>only </em><em>1</em><em> (one) </em><em>respondent (0.08%) had a history of taeniasis. The significance value of the correlation (p) between the habit of eating pork lawar and a history of taeniasis was 0.312. </em><strong>Conclusion:</strong><em> There is a lack of correlation between the practise of consuming pork lawar and the prevalence of taeniasis among the population residing in Kerobokan Village, located in the Badung Regency of Bali.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pork lawar, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taeniasis</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal Revolutionizing Herbal Medicine: Exploring Nano Drug Delivery Systems 2023-08-14T13:06:14+07:00 Pranav Kumar Prabhakar Keshav Anand Indu Bala Rupendra Shakya Harpreet Kaur Massaon Abhilasha Suwalka Bineesh CP CP Anush N <p>Abstract. <br /><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for centuries and continues to play a significant role in healthcare systems worldwide. However, the efficacy and therapeutic potential of herbal remedies can be limited due to various factors such as poor bioavailability, instability, and non-specific targeting. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to overcome these limitations and revolutionize the field of herbal medicine. This review explores the application of nano drug delivery systems in enhancing the effectiveness of herbal therapeutics. The utilization of nanotechnology in the context of herbal medicine involves the design and development of nano-sized carriers that can encapsulate and deliver herbal bioactive compounds to the target sites in a controlled and targeted manner. Various types of nanocarriers, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanoemulsions, have been extensively investigated for their potential in improving the bioavailability, stability, and controlled release of herbal compounds. The integration of nanotechnology with herbal medicine offers several advantages, including enhanced solubility, protection against degradation, prolonged circulation time, and specific targeting to diseased tissues or cells. Furthermore, nano drug delivery systems can also facilitate the combination of multiple herbal ingredients, enabling synergistic effects and customized therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the recent advancements in nano drug delivery systems for herbal medicine, highlighting their potential applications in various therapeutic areas, such as cancer treatment, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory conditions. Additionally, challenges and future perspectives regarding the clinical translation of these nanotechnological approaches are discussed. In conclusion, the integration of nanotechnology with herbal medicine holds great promise in revolutionizing the field of healthcare. The development of efficient and targeted nano drug delivery systems can significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of herbal remedies, leading to improved patient outcomes and the potential for personalized medicine. Further research and collaborations between scientists, herbalists, and clinicians are needed to unlock the full potential of nano drug delivery systems in herbal medicine.</em></p> <p>Keywords: Revolutionizing, Herbal medicine, Nano drug delivery systems, Bioavailability, Stability, Nanotechnology, Nanocarriers, Liposomes, Polymeric nanoparticles, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Nanoemulsions</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF SETTLEMENTS IN SUKADONO HAMLET, HELVETIA DISTRICT, DELI SERDANG REGENCY 2023-08-14T13:06:01+07:00 Azran Azmi Yoan Carolina Panggabean Yunilda Andriyani Bambang Prayugo <p>Abstract. <em><strong>Background: </strong><strong> </strong>Soil is where humans can do an abundance of activities. Soil can be contaminated by various factors. Soil is also a medium of development, storage and transmission of several types of worms, commonly referred to as Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH). Soil Transmitted Helminths are usually found in individuals with poor individual hygiene, low socioeconomics and at risk of infection. Sukadono Hamlet villagers mostly work as pig and chicken breeders. <strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to find out the characteristics of residential land in the Sukadono Hamlet Helvetia District Deli Serdang. <strong>Method</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>:</strong><strong> </strong>The sample in this study was 72 soils taken from the front, back left or right of the house. The soil is measured in temperature, humidity, pH value and is checked using a Digital Soil Analyzer. Then for the STH examination conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research uses research method descriptive - observaional with across sectional approach. Sample was chosen using the technique probability sampling with simple random sampling. <strong>Results:</strong><strong> </strong>The results showed that most of the soil characteristics in Sukadono Hamlet Helvetia District Deli Serdang were abnormal. The STH examination results also showed that (45.8%) of the 72 soil samples examined positively contained STH. Hookworms were found in (32.9%) soil samples, Ascaris lumbricoides species in (5.3%) soil samples, Strongyloides stercoralis species were found positive in (7.9%) soil samples and a mixture of STH is present in 2 (3.9%) soil samples. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The resident soil in Sukadono Hamlet, Helvetia Ward, Deli Serdang District has been contaminated by Soil Transmitted Helminths.</em></p> <p>Keywords: Contamination. Soil Characteristics, Soil Transmitted Helminth</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal Trend and Characteristics among Patients with Cancer at Emergency Department of Adam Malik General Hospital Medan 2023-08-14T13:06:21+07:00 Kamal Basri Siregar Yolanda Rahayu <p>Abstract. <strong>Introduction</strong>:<em> The prevalence of cancer cases globally is increasing rapidly, especially in emergency department </em><em>(ED) </em><em>visits. Usually, cancer patients come for acute signs and symptoms of a still undiagnosed malignancy, management of treatment-related side effects, co-morbidities, and palliative care. </em><strong>Objective:</strong> <em>T</em><em>o</em><em> identify the demographic characteristics of cancer patients, reasons for ED visits, and associated factors of oncologic patients. </em><strong>Methods:</strong><em> A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2022 - June 2023 at the ED of H. Adam Malik Hospital Medan with 392 oncologic patients. Data were collected using the Integrated System Application of Hospital (STARS) database. </em><strong>Results:</strong><em> The percentage of women (69%) was two times higher than men (31%), </em><em>with 82% </em><em>being 18-64 years old</em><em>. B</em><em>reast was the most common location of malignancy</em><em> for 21.4%, followed by gastrointestinal malignancy for 20.1%</em><em>. The most common reason for ED visits was pain, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms. The ratio of patients who were discharged and hospitalized was </em><em>50:50</em><em>, while the mortality rate was none. </em><strong>Conclusion:</strong><em> The most common primary diagnosis was breast malignancy in women and gastrointestinal malignancy in men. The majority of ED visits were for the management of treatment-related side effects and palliative care</em><em>.</em></p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal The Relationship of Body Mass Index with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Based on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire Score in Dinas Bina Marga dan Bina Konstruksi of North Sumatera 2023-08-14T13:05:17+07:00 Bella Pardede Lidya Imelda Laksmi <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> <br /><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong><em> Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a pathological condition due to the reflux of stomach contents back into the esophagus that causing symptoms. In Indonesia, there is no clear prevalence of the incidence of GERD. Some risk factors that can cause GERD are age, sex, race, family history, economic status, increased body mass index (BMI) to obesity and smoking. BMI is the most useful and practical indicator for measuring body fat. It is known that an increased BMI can increase the risk for the occurrence of GERD. </em><strong>Objective:</strong><em> Knowing the relationship between BMI and GERD based on the GERD-Q score at the Dinas Bina Marga dan Bina Konstruksi of North Sumatra province. </em><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong><em> This research is an analatic study using cross-sectional method. Sampling using simple random sampling. The sample of this study using Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GERD-Q) for GERD diagnosis tool and measurement of weight and height to get BMI. </em><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong><em> The analysis results obtained by Kendalls Tau-b correlation test and found p = 0.773 (p &lt; 0.005). </em><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong><em> There was no significant relationship between BMI and GERD based on GERD-Q scores on employees of the Dinas Bina Marga dan Bina Konstruksi of North Sumatera.</em></p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>:</strong> Body Mass Index, GERD, GERD-Q</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal Production and quality evaluation of herbal tea mixtures from Phyllanthus Debilis, Osbeckia octandra, and Artrocarpus heterophyllus leaves 2023-08-19T08:40:01+07:00 P. Gayani I. Dias R.A. Upul J. Marapana R.M. Udaya S.K. Rathnayaka <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> <br /><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>This study investigated the acceptability and quality of herbal tea mixtures prepared using Phyllanthus debilis, Osbeckia octandra, and Artrocarpus heterophyllus leaves powders in different proportions. Preference for different sensory attributes of tea samples was evaluated using thirty untrained panelists. Proximate composition, tea quality parameters, and microbial counts of tea samples were evaluated as per AOAC and ISO standard methods. The amount of major and trace minerals was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results revealed that dark-colored samples were much preferred by the consumers. A significant positive correlation (r=0.920) showed among redness (a*) of teas and color preference. Yet, the overall preference was reduced in more bitter and astringent samples. Overall acceptability scores highest for A. heterophyllus tea (M9), yet the color preference was highest in P. debilis tea (M8) and mix of P. debilis and O. octandra (M4). The tea samples were rich in nutrients, yet crude fiber and moisture contents exceed the required maximum limits. Heavy metal concentrations and microbial counts lay within the standard limits. This study showed mixing herbs can enhance the acceptability and quality of herbal infusions. With such optimizations, these novel tea mixtures can thrive commercially in the tea market.</em> </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Herbal tea, Quality parameters, Sensory attributes</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal A Laminectomy Decompression in Radiculopathy Vertebrae L3-L4, L4-L5: A Case Report 2023-08-22T10:44:53+07:00 Radityo Priambodo Ompusunggu Sevline Estethia Rully Hanafi Dahlan Ompusunggu Sevline Estethia <p><strong>Abstract. <br />Introduction:</strong> <em>Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions and affect only a minority of the population. Spinal metastases comprising approximately 97% of masses encountered with spinal imaging and is the most common site of metastasis from breast cancer. The sign and symptom for metastatic spinal tumors is varied from back pain, motoric and sensoric dysfunction and in advanced disease, spinal cord compression.</em><strong>Case Report:</strong><em> In this case, we report a 39-year-old female patient with complaints of weakness in the lower limb with history of breast cancer. The patient underwent a contrast lumbosacral MRI examination and found the patient has metastatic spine tumors. The patient was then planned to undergo laminectomy decompression, tumor resection, and posterior stabilization procedures. </em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Spinal tumors is a condition that can arise within spinal cord itself or from the adjacent structures. It affects only a minority of the population. The hallmark symptom for spinal metastases is back pain. Surgical techniques such as open decompression and stabilization are used from the condition of the patient who has a neurodeficit and compression from radiological examination with good</em> prognosis.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Breast cancer, Metastatic spinal tumors, Neurosurgery, Weakness</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal WHITISH PATCH OVER SOFT PALATE : AN INCIDENTAL FINDING OF BASALOID SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA 2023-08-11T18:15:37+07:00 Jeeven Velayutham JEYASAKTHY SANIASIAYA MOHD ZULKIFLEE BIN ABU BAKAR <p><strong>Abstract. Introduction:</strong> <em>Whitish lesion over the oropharyngeal mucosal lesion is traditionally attributed to benign lesions such as leukoplakia, oral candidiasis or lichen planus, which can be diagnosed through histopathological examination. Yet, performing a biopsy is prudent in all cases of persistent whitish lesions to rule out a more sinister pathology such as malignancy. Herein, we report an incidental finding of a whitish lesion in the soft palate of a gentleman who presented with otalgia and otorrhea, which turned out to be basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC). Therefore, we highlight the importance of thorough, meticulous and complete Ear, Nose and Throat examinations in all patients as they enable early diagnosis of a sinister pathology in this patient.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, Conventional squamous cell carcinoma Immunohistochemisrty, Squamous cell carcinoma, Soft palate; Oropharyngeal carcinoma</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sumatera Medical Journal