Sumatera Medical Journal <p><em>Sumatera Medical Journal</em> (SUMEJ), the official journal of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, publishes research covering the very latest development in medical sciences. It is a peer-reviewed, open-access, and fully-online journal that is issued at least three times a year since 2018, published by the TALENTA Publisher of Universitas Sumatera Utara.</p> <p>Sumatera Medical Journal (SUMEJ) provides a forum for publishing the full research articles in the area of Medical Science focuses on non-communicable diseases from basic biomolecular to clinical sciences and related to topics such as: Cancer and Related Aspects, Biomoleculer in Basic Sciences, Biomoleculer in Clinical Sciences, Tissue Engineering including Stem Cell, Medical and Health Sciences.</p> <p>Sumatera Medical Journal also collaborates with associations and international projects, including the Erasmus Plus SPIRIT Project. SPIRIT Project is an abbreviation of Sport and Physical Education as a Vehicle for Inclusion and Recognition in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka which included three european partners which are Cyprus, Spain, and Portugal. Asian partners are India, Indonesia, dan Sri Lanka, that will contributes in sharing researchs and knowledges in SUMEJ journal.</p> <p>Authors are invited to submit original articles, review articles (systematic review and meta-analysis), and case report. All submitted manuscript will have a rigorous editorial check and peer-review assessment before a final decision. We commit to maintaining the ethical standards in medical publication, including the transparency in the review and publication process; authors’ retention of copyright; and the nature of open access publication with no restrictions on availability and dissemination.</p> <p><a href="">ISSN: 2622-9234</a></p> en-US <div id="coptf"> <p align="justify">The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Data Science: <span id="result_box" lang="en">Sumatera Medical Journal (SUMEJ) and Faculty of Medicine as well as TALENTA Publisher Universitas Sumatera Utara</span> as publisher of the journal.</p> <p align="justify">Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, will be allowed only with a written permission from Sumatera Medical Journal (SUMEJ).</p> <p align="justify">The Copyright Transfer Form can be downloaded <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>. <br>The copyright form should be signed originally and sent to the Editorial Office in the form of original mail or scanned document.</p> </div> (Dina Keumala Sari) (Bambang Riono) Wed, 01 May 2024 16:06:24 +0700 OJS 60 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in HIV Infected Patient <p>Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Toxopasma gondii, which affects one third of the global human population and commonly involves the central nervous system (CNS)/brain. The diagnosis of obvious sign of imaging method cerebral toxoplasmosis is commonly reported in several case report, but subclinical sign of imaging is uncommon reported. We reported a case of 28-years-old male with chief complaint headache that worsening since 3 days before admission. He was first recognized as HIV infected patient on hospital admission. CT scan revealed minimal perifocal oedema in left frontal region. Patient was diagnosed as cerebral toxoplasmosis and latent tuberculosis infection in HIV clinical stadium IV. Patient recieved empirical therapy of cerebral toxoplasmosis and symptom relieved after 7 days of treatment. Cerebral toxoplasmosisis typically associated with HIV infected patient that result in the reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Clinical presentation of CNS toxoplasmosis varies and normal brain CT can be found despited presumptive diagnosis was revealed.</p> Rijalun Arridho, Raveinal, Dwitya Elvira Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 A Study on Impact of Covid-19 on Job Performance & Job Satisfaction of Employees Engaged in WFH Culture <p>Coronavirus (COVID-19), which hit in early 2020, altered people's lives and livelihoods, as well as industries and Organisations throughout the world. Many businesses have begun to implement a new method of working in order to accommodate different changes in working hours and the possibility of working from home. The goal of this study was to fill in the gaps by looking into numerous possible determinants of job satisfaction and employee performance while working from home, such as work–life balance and work stress, as well as the influence of COVID-19. This study is descriptive design, a cross sectional study, the data is collected using primary methods that is widely accepted to measure the job satisfaction and employee performance during working from home. Results: Age of respondent was100% of the respondents belong to the category of the age group 18-30. Gender of the respondents -68.2% of the respondents were male while 31.8 % of the respondents belong to the female category. Occupation of the respondents - 86.4% of the respondents were students while 13.6% belong to the employed category. As the significance value that is .072 so it depicts that Covid-19 has a statistically 0.72 impact on Employee performance. Working from home might be a positive indicator in reaction to the collectivist environment. </p> Sheetal Mahendra Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Protein Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Its Correlation to Smoking Status in North Sumatera Population <p>Tobacco smoking is associated to the increase risk of lung cancer, and smoking could also trigger the tumour proportion score from programmed death ligand (PD-L1). This study aims to identify the correlation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the PD-L1 expression and smoking profile on the North Sumatra Population. Lung cancer is a significant health issue worldwide, where it is the leading cause of death in men. In Indonesia, lung cancer ranks second in terms of incidence overall and first in men. The 5-year prevalence of lung cancer in Indonesia is 10.85 per 100,000 population. The case fatality rate (CFR) for lung cancer in Indonesia is 86.91%. This research implemented a descriptive study with cross-sectional design. 100 of patients with lung cancer were recruited, however; only 52 patients were diagnosed with NSCLC based on histopathological results. Subsequently, 35 samples were included in accordance to inclusion criteria. Staining on Ventana 22C3 platform was performed in Dharmais Cancer Hospital, and tumour proportion score was assessed by two experts of Pathologist. This study was carried out from August 2019 to September 2020. Results: Characteristics of patients with NSCLC to the PD-L1 expression were found more in male patients with percentage of 88.6%, whereas the most common type of cancer is adenocarcinoma, accounting for 97.14% of cases with mild degree smoking index for 45.7% (Brinkman index) and IV-stage of clinical status for 68.6%. The tumour proportion score with 1-49% was 51.4% with high expression of PD-L1 (positive) for 74.28%, while lower expression of PD-L1 accounted for 45%. There is a correlation between PD-L1 expression and smoking status in NSCLC patients, with p-value of 0.037 (&lt;0.05).</p> Noni Novisari Soeroso, Setia Putra Tarigan, Rahmat Hidayat, Elisna Syahruddin, Evlin Suzanna, Dian Chayadi Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 A Natural Food Colourant from Dioscorea alata (Dandila) in Sri Lanka: Development, Storage Stability and Bio-active Properties <p>Though anthocyanins are popular as natural food colourants with additional functional properties, their instability limited their utilization in the industry. Therefore, this study aimed to formulate a natural food colourant by the microwave-assisted encapsulation of Dandila (Dioscorea alata) anthocyanins to enhance the storage stability of the pigments in ambient conditions and to study the storage stability and the bio-active properties of the formulated colourant. Acidified water was used as the solvent to extract the anthocyanins from Dandila yams. Maltodextrin and gum Arabic were tested as wall materials at three different ratios to encapsulate the extracted pigments. Storage stability, Total Phenolic content, anti-oxidant activity and anti-bacterial activity were determined using appropriate procedures. The colourant formulation encapsulated with maltodextrin (30 mg/ml) was selected as the best encapsulation treatment for Dandila anthocyanin. Anthocyanin degradation was not significant during the tested 12 months of storage period. Noteworthy values were obtained for Total Phenolic Content and anti-oxidant activity. Among the tested strains in the antimicrobial assay, the natural colourant showed inhibitory activities against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The results confirm the successful development of a natural colourant rich in bio-active properties from Dandila anthocyanin while ensuring its storage stability in ambient conditions.</p> Erandika Premachandra, Amanda Sajiwanie, Udaya Rathnayaka Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Skin Care in Dermatology: Between Organic versus Synthetic Products <p>Various skin care products have been used and played essential roles in maintaining good skin conditions. Over the last few decades, cosmetic industries and pharmacies have evolved and created skin care products according to the needs of each skin type, either based on organic or synthetic products. Natural or organic products were produced from natural ingredients, such as plants, flowers, and fruits, while synthetic products were made from a combination of organic chemical compounds. Both products work effectively on the skin according to their contents, but adverse effects can also occur, such as mucocutaneous reactions, edema, and allergies. This article compares organic and synthetic products based on their ingredients, functions, and side effects.</p> Riefka Ananda Zulfa, Nelva Karmila Jusuf Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Glucose to Complications: Understanding Secondary Effects in Diabetes Mellitus <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, impacting millions globally. While glucose control is central to its management, understanding secondary complications is crucial for comprehensive care. This paper explores the intricate relationship "From Glucose to Complications" in DM, elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms and organ system involvement. Hyperglycemia-induced damage, driven by glycation and oxidative stress, underpins the cascade of complications. Microvascular complications encompass diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, each posing significant morbidity and mortality risks. Macrovascular complications, including atherosclerosis and stroke, contribute substantially to cardiovascular morbidity in diabetic individuals. Metabolic derangements such as dyslipidemia and obesity further exacerbate the risk profile. Endocrine disturbances, neurological sequelae, and cognitive impairments represent additional burdens in DM management. This paper emphasizes preventive strategies and holistic management approaches to mitigate complications. Glycemic control remains paramount, supported by lifestyle interventions emphasizing diet, exercise, and weight management. Pharmacological therapies targeting secondary complications, alongside emerging therapies, hold promise in improving outcomes. Furthermore, addressing comorbidities and mental health concerns is integral to comprehensive care in DM. In conclusion, effective management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and its associated complications necessitates a multifaceted approach encompassing glycemic control, lifestyle interventions, and pharmacological therapies.</p> P. K. Prabhakar Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Unraveling the Complexities of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review <p>Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting reproductive-age women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. This comprehensive review delves into the multifaceted nature of PCOS, exploring its etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and management strategies. Key topics include the role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in PCOS pathogenesis, the impact of hormonal imbalances on menstrual irregularities and fertility, and the association of PCOS with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, the review discusses current diagnostic criteria and controversies surrounding PCOS diagnosis, as well as evidence-based approaches to treatment, encompassing lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, and assisted reproductive technologies. By synthesizing current knowledge and emerging research findings, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of PCOS for clinicians, researchers, and individuals affected by this prevalent endocrine disorder.</p> Archana Kumari, Satya Narayan jha Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700 Depression and Type 2 Diabetes: Dissecting the Causal Mechanisms <p>Depression and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are two prevalent and debilitating chronic conditions that often coexist and exhibit a bidirectional relationship. This review paper aims to dissect the causal mechanisms underlying the association between depression and T2D, shedding light on the complex interplay between these two disorders. Epidemiological evidence suggests a robust association between depression and an increased risk of developing T2D, as well as a reciprocal relationship where T2D serves as a risk factor for depression onset. Various biological, psychological, and behavioral mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this bidirectional relationship. Depression is thought to contribute to the development of T2D through dysregulation of neuroendocrine pathways, increased inflammation, alterations in lifestyle behaviors, and poor treatment adherence. Conversely, T2D may exacerbate or precipitate depression through mechanisms involving insulin resistance, hyperglycemia-induced neuronal damage, inflammation, and the impact of chronic illness on psychological well-being. Shared pathophysiological mechanisms between depression and T2D, including dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, insulin signaling pathways, and inflammatory processes, further contribute to their co-occurrence. Psychosocial factors such as socioeconomic status, social support, and access to healthcare also play significant roles in shaping the depression-T2D relationship. Integrated care models that address both physical and mental health needs, along with targeted interventions addressing lifestyle modifications and psychosocial support, are essential for managing these comorbid conditions effectively. Future research directions include longitudinal studies to elucidate temporal associations, intervention trials targeting shared mechanisms, and precision medicine approaches to identify subgroups at heightened risk. Understanding the causal mechanisms underlying the depression-T2D relationship is crucial for informing clinical practice, public health strategies, and the development of personalized interventions aimed at mitigating the burden of these interconnected disorders.</p> Awani Kumar Diwakar Copyright (c) 2024 Sumatera Medical Journal Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0700