Analisis Keragaman Genetik Varietas MTG Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensisJacq.) Berdasarkan Tiga Marka RAPD

Genetic diversity of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) of MTG Commercial Variety Based on Three RAPD Marker

  • Frynando Purba Girsang Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Lollie Agustina P. Putri Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Rosmayati Program Studi Agroekoteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
Keywords: genetic diversity, RAPD markers, oil palm of MTG variety, kelapa sawit varietas MTG, keragaman genetik, marka RAPD

Abstract

MTG varietyis “moderate resistant”oil palm variety to ganoderma disease, these varietyis not totally resistant to ganoderma disease, itmeans can be attacked and has the same morphological with other variety, soneed to analyzed withmoleculer marker to see genetic differences. The aim of this study is to know the pattern of DNA bands of oil palm based on RAPD marker OPA-13, OPD13, OPH-13. This study was conducted in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, from March 2017 to February 2018. Analyzed genetic materials were 26 DNA stocks of oil palm of commercial MTG variety from PT. Socfindo and resulted 100% of polymorphic percentage. The size of the DNA that produced a varied range between 424 to 2572 bp. Only 19 DNA samples that could be processed in software from the 26 DNA samples that analyzed,because there some samples that were not able to be amplified, so they did not meet the standardized precentage. Genetic distance measurement and dendrogram formation were analyzed using DARwin 6.0 software. The results of the analysis showed that 19 individuals were divided into three clusters with a total molecular diversity 49.87%. Coefficient of dissimilarity distance was 0 to 0,6.

Varietas MTG merupakan varietas kelapa sawit yang “moderat tahan” penyakit ganoderma, varietas ini bukan varietas yang total resisten terhadap serangan penyakit ganoderma, tetapi moderat tahan yang berarti masih bisa terserang dan jika dilihat secara kasat mata mempunyai bentuk morfologi yang sama dengan varietas lain, sehingga perlu dilakukan analisis dengan mengguna kan marka molekuler untuk melihat perbedaan secara genetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui profil pita DNA kelapa sawit varietas MTG (Moderat Tahan Gano) berdasarkan marka Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) menggunakan primer OPA-13, OPD-13, OPH-13. Penelitian inidilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Tanaman, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, dimulai dari bulan Maret 2017 hingga Febuari 2018. Materi genetik yang dianalisis merupakan 26 stok DNA kelapa sawit varietas MTG dari PT. Socfindo menghasilkan persentase polimorfik sebesar 100 %. Ukuran pita DNA yang di hasilkan bervariasi berkisar antara 424 sampai 2572 bp. Hanya19 sampel DNA yang dapat diproses softwaredari26 sampel DNA yang dianalisis, karena ada beberapa sampel yang tidak teramplifikasi, sehingga tidak memenuhi persentasi yang distandarkan. Perhitungan jarak dan pembentukan dendrogram dilakukan menggunakan software DARwin 6.0. Hasil analisis menunjukan bahwa 19 individu tersebut terbagi atas tiga kelompok utama dengan total keragaman molekuler 49,87 %. Koefisien jarak dissimilarity berkisar antara 0-0,6.

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Published
2019-06-27