Analysis of Embedding Locations in the Subband Frequency DCT on Scanned Images


  • Indri Hidayati Master of Informatics Program, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Mohammad Andri Budiman Master of Informatics Program, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Zarlis Department of Information Systems, Bina Nusantara University



Discrete Cosine Transform, Invisible Watermark, PSNR, SSIM, Subband DCT, Watermarking Techique


Uploading an identity card as an image for the account verification process or transactions online can be a threat to application users. Identity card theft can be carried out by irresponsible persons if the application can be hacked. Therefore, protection of the image is required for authentication. In this study, the proposed technique is watermarking. A watermark in the form of a binary image will be embedded into the image as ownership using a Discrete Cosine Transform. The Discrete Cosine Transform works in the frequency domain. The location of the embedding of different watermarks was analysed in each 8×8 DCT block. The results of the analysis to assess the imperceptibility of original images and watermarked images using PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Measure), while assessing the watermark robustness embedded using NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation). The results show PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) ≥ 54 dB with a watermark strength of 0,1 and an average SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Measure) ≥ 0,9 on 4 scanned images in BMP format with a resolution of 100 DPI. A good watermark embedding is done on the green component at middle frequencies to maintain a balance between imperceptibility and robustness. In contrast, the red component at low frequency is vulnerable to attacks in the form of brightness +20 and contrast +50 with an average NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation) ≤ 0,85.


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How to Cite

Hidayati, I., Budiman, M. A., & Zarlis, M. (2023). Analysis of Embedding Locations in the Subband Frequency DCT on Scanned Images. Data Science: Journal of Computing and Applied Informatics, 7(1), 1-14.