Glucose to Complications: Understanding Secondary Effects in Diabetes Mellitus

Authors

  • P. K. Prabhakar Department of Biochemistry, Science College Patna University, Patna, Bihar, 144411, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32734/sumej.v7i2.15998

Keywords:

Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperglycemia, Macrovascular, Microvascular, Secondary Complications

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, impacting millions globally. While glucose control is central to its management, understanding secondary complications is crucial for comprehensive care. This paper explores the intricate relationship "From Glucose to Complications" in DM, elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms and organ system involvement. Hyperglycemia-induced damage, driven by glycation and oxidative stress, underpins the cascade of complications. Microvascular complications encompass diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, each posing significant morbidity and mortality risks. Macrovascular complications, including atherosclerosis and stroke, contribute substantially to cardiovascular morbidity in diabetic individuals. Metabolic derangements such as dyslipidemia and obesity further exacerbate the risk profile. Endocrine disturbances, neurological sequelae, and cognitive impairments represent additional burdens in DM management. This paper emphasizes preventive strategies and holistic management approaches to mitigate complications. Glycemic control remains paramount, supported by lifestyle interventions emphasizing diet, exercise, and weight management. Pharmacological therapies targeting secondary complications, alongside emerging therapies, hold promise in improving outcomes. Furthermore, addressing comorbidities and mental health concerns is integral to comprehensive care in DM. In conclusion, effective management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and its associated complications necessitates a multifaceted approach encompassing glycemic control, lifestyle interventions, and pharmacological therapies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

P.K Prabhakar, & M. Doble. ”Mechanism of action of natural products used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus,” Chinese journal of integrative medicine, vol. 17, pp. 563-574, 2011.

J.B. Cole, & J.C. Florez. “Genetics of diabetes mellitus and diabetes complications,” Nature reviews nephrology, vol. 16 no. 7, pp. 377-390, 2020.

American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes care, vol. 37(Supplement_1), pp. S81-S90, 2014.

S. Ta. “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes care, vol. 37, no.1, pp. 81-90, 2014.

E. Yefet, L. Bar, I. Izhaki, R. Iskander, M. Massalha, et al. “Effects of probiotics on glycemic control and metabolic parameters in gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutrients, vol. 15, no.7, pp. 1633, 2023.

A. Kumar, R. Gangwar, A. Zargar, R. Kumar, & A. Sharma. “Prevalence of diabetes in India: A review of IDF diabetes atlas 10th edition,” Current diabetes reviews, vol. 20, no.1, pp. 105-114, 2024.

M. Roden, K.F. Petersen, & G.I. Shulman. “Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes,” Textbook of diabetes, 238-249.

Zahedi, M., Kordrostami, S., Kalantarhormozi, M., & Bagheri, M. (2023). “A Review of Hyperglycemia in COVID-19,” Cureus, 15(4).

R.S. Machado, K. Mathias, L. Joaquim, R.W. de Quadros, & G.T. Rezin. “From diabetic hyperglycemia to cerebrovascular Damage: A narrative review,” Brain Research, 148611, 2023.

S.K. Raut, & M. Khullar. “Oxidative stress in metabolic diseases: Current scenario and therapeutic relevance,” Molecular and cellular biochemistry, vol. 478, no. 1, pp. 185-196, 2023,

K.W. Kim, Y.S. Lee, B.R. Choi, D. Yoon, & D.Y. Lee. “Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Black Ginseng through TLR4-MyD88-Regulated Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced BV2 Microglial Cells,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 15320, 2023.

P.M. Sivakumar, V. Prabhawathi, A. Zarrabi, S. Akthar, & P.K. Prabhakar. “Current trends in the therapeutic strategies for diabetes management,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 4616-4637, 2021.

P.K. Prabhakar. “Hypoglycemic potential of mushroom and their metabolites,” New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Recent Advances in Application of Fungi and Fungal Metabolites: Applications in Healthcare, pp. 197, 2020

H.T. Cheng, X. Xu, P.S. Lim, & K.Y. Hung. “Worldwide epidemiology of diabetes-related end-stage renal disease 2000–2015,” Diabetes Care, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 89-97, 2021.

T.M. Curtis, T.A. Gardiner, T. A., & Stitt, A. W. “Microvascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy: clues towards understanding pathogenesis,” Eye, vol. 23, no.7, pp. 1496-1508, 2009.

T.E. Tan, & T.Y. Wong. “Diabetic retinopathy: Looking forward to 2030,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 13, 1077669, 2023.

K. Gomułka, & M. Ruta. “The role of inflammation and therapeutic concepts in diabetic retinopathy—a short review,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 24, no.2, pp. 1024, 2023.

V.K. Maurya, S. Kumar, M. Singh, & V. Saxena. “Molecular docking and dynamic studies of novel phytoconstituents in an investigation of the potential inhibition of protein kinase C-beta II in diabetic neuropathy”. Journal of Molecular Chemistry, vol. 3, no.2, pp. 589-589, 2023.

A. Reisi, A. Hashemi-Oskouei, M.N. Ashtiani, & F. Bahrpeyma. “Role of sensory feedback in postural control of the patients with diabetic neuropathy,” International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, pp. 1-7, 2023.

Q. Hu, L. Jiang, Q. Yan, J. Zeng, X. Ma, & Y. Zhao. “A natural products solution to diabetic nephropathy therapy,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 241, 108314, 2023.

S.C. Naaman, & G.L. Bakris. “Diabetic nephropathy: update on pillars of therapy slowing progression,” Diabetes Care, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1574-1586. 2023.

N. Emanuele, & P.D. Reaven. “Insulin Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus-Tight vs. Conventional Control,” In Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 969-987.

J. Nadhiya, M.K. Vijayalakshmi, & S. Showbharnikhaa. “ A Brief Review on Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal of Pharma Insights and Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 117-121, 2024.

Published

2024-05-01

How to Cite

1.
P. K. Prabhakar. Glucose to Complications: Understanding Secondary Effects in Diabetes Mellitus. Sumat. Med. J. [Internet]. 2024May1 [cited 2024Jun.24];7(2):87-95. Available from: https://talenta.usu.ac.id/smj/article/view/15998