Roasting's Effects on Proximate and Amino Acid Content of Maize


  • Nonso Ejoh Applied Biochemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • C.G. Onyeulo Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada



amino acid, corn, evaluation, maize, proximate analysis


The main objective of this research is to compare the amino acid and proximate compositions of raw and roasted maize samples. Complete randomized experimental design with triplicates replications was applied. From the analysis, we were able to obtain the following values: total carbohydrates (78.28-79.85 percent), crude protein (7.32-7.05 percent), crude fat (2.70-2.20 percent), crude fiber (2.40-2.10 percent) and ash (2.10-2.50 percent) for both raw and roasted maize seeds. Prolonged exposure to the heat from roasting altered the amino acid content as obtained from the result. The concentration of amino acids in the seeds was reduced by the heat effect. The highest concentration of leucine was contained in seeds, with a value of 1.30 g/16 g N and 0.95 g/16 g N in the case of the raw and roasted seeds, respectively. Lysine and tryptophan concentrations were low, but they contain equal quantities of amino acids containing sulphur, which are methionine and cystine.


Download data is not yet available.


P. N. Golob, A. Kutukwa, R. E. Devereau, Bartosik, and J. C. Rodriguez, “Chapter two: Maize”, in Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology Volume 2, R. Hodges and G. Farrell, Eds. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2004.

A. Yaouba, N. Tatsadjieu, D.P.M. Jazet, and C.M. Mbofung, ”Inhibition of fungal development in maize grains under storage condition by essential oils”, International Journal of Bioscience, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 41-48, 2012.

FAO, “Irrigation water requirements”, in Irrigation Potential in Africa: A Basin Approach. Rome: FAO, March, 2020. [Online]. Available:

D. C. Nkamigbo, O. A. Atiri, B.O. Gbughemobi, and N. J. Obiekwe, “Comparative analysis of costs and returns in hybrid and nonhybrid maize production in Osun State, Nigeria”, Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 56-70, 2015.

J. E. Iken and N.A. Amusa, “Maize research and production in Nigeria”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 302-307, 2004.

FAO, “FAO production maize”, 2008. [Online]. Available:

R. O. Babatunde, E. O. Olorunsanya, and A. D. Adejola, ”Assessment of rural household poverty: evidence from Southwestern Nigeria”, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 900-905, 2008.

F. I. Nweke and J. A. A. Akorha, “Determinants of adoption of new technology among smallholder and implementation for administration of transfer programmes. A case study of rice production of Plateau State of Nigeria Agricultural Administration”, AGRIS, vol. 12, pp. 17-19, 1983.

NARP [National Agricultural Research Project], National Agricultural Research Strategy Plan for Nigeria (North-West Zone: Draft Report), Nigeria: NARP, 1994.

FAO, “FAOSTAT: Food and Agriculture Organization statistic database”, 2007. [Online]. Available:

D. Ape, N. Nwogu, E. Uwakwe, and C. Ikedinobi, “Comparative proximate analysis of maize and sorghum bought from Ogbete Main Market of Enugu State, Nigeria”, Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 272-275, 2016.

H. K. Dei, “Assessment of maize (Zea mays) as feed resource for poultry” in Poultry Science, M. Manafi, Ed. London, UK: IntechOpen, 2017 [Online]. Available from: doi: 10.5772/61986.

F. Hossain, V. Muthusamy, J.S. Bhat, S.K. Jha, R. Zunjare, A. Das, K. Sarika, and R. Kumar, “Maize-broadening the genetic base of grain cereals”, Springer, pp. 67–88, 2016.

R. Bressani and E. Elias, “Guidelines for the development of processed and packaged weaning foods”, Food Nutr. Bull, vol. 5, pp. 32-36, 1983.

M. Ozor, “Economic analysis of dry maize in the South East States of Nigeria”, Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Agric. Econ. and Extent., Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria, 2017.

O. S. Fasasi, I. A. Adeyemi, and O. A. Fagbenro, “Proximate composition and multi-enzyme in vitro protein digestibility of maize-tilapia flour blends”, J. Food Technol, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 342-345, 2005.

AOAC International, Official Methods of Analysis. Gaithersburg: AOAC International, 2005.

S. Ali, S. Nazir, S. Usman, Z. Nasreen, U. Kalsoom, and T. Inam, “Study on the biochemical effects of barley fiber on the hypercholesterolaemic rats”, African Journal of Plant Science,vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 237-242, 2014.

S.O. Serna-Saldivar, Cereal Grains. Laboratory Reference and Procedures Manual, Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, 2012.

D. H. Spackman, W.H. Stein, and S. Moore, “Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatography of amino acids”, Analyt. Chem.,vol. 30, pp. 1990-1991, 1958.

B. B. Desai and D. K. Salunkhe, “Fruits and Vegetables” in Foods of Plant Origin: Production, Technology and Human Nutrition, D.K. Salunkhe and S.S. Deshpande, Eds. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991, pp.301-355.

K. R. Davey, “A predictive model for combined temperature and water activity on microbial growth during the growth phase”, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 483-488, 1989.

W. S. Frazier and D. C. Westoff, Food Microbiology. New York, USA: McGraw Hill, 1978.

A. Thompson, Postharvest treatments. in: postharvest technology of fruit and vegetables. Cambridge, USA: Blackwell Science Ltd, 1996.

M. O. Bello, O. S. Falade, S. R. A. Adewusi, and N. O. Olawore, “Studies on the chemical compositions and anti-nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits”, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 21, pp. 3972-3979, 2008.

L. Saldanha, “Fiber in the diet of U.S. children: results of national surveys”, Paediatrics,. vol. 96, pp. 994-996, 1995.

FAO, “Improvement of maize diet”, in Maize in human nutrition. Rome: FAO, 1992 [Online]. Available from:

FAO/WHO/UNU. Protein quality evaluation. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation, 1991.



How to Cite

Ejoh, N., & Onyeulo, C. (2022). Roasting’s Effects on Proximate and Amino Acid Content of Maize. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(01), 1 - 10.