1-Methylcyclopropene and Ethephon Effects on 'Carabao' Mango Fruits Harvested at Different Stages of Fruit Maturity


  • Bryl Manigo College of Agriculture and Related Sciences, University of Southeastern Philippines, Tagum-Mabini Campus, Apokon, Tagum City, Davao del Norte, Philippines
  • Narlyn Antibo Junior High School Department, Libaylibay National High School, Maco, Davao de Oro, Philippines




chemical properties, climacteric fruits, Ethylene-action blocker, mango, shelf-life


Three experiments were conducted using three different stages of fruit maturity (100, 105, and 110 DAFI or days after flower induction) of ‘Carabao’ mangoes harvested from the same set of trees. Fruits harvested were applied with 1-MCP [(dosage:0.5 µL/L) via gas exposure for 20 hours and spraying], and ethephon (dipping at 1ml/L of H2O) applied singly or in combination. Mangoes were then stored in ambient room conditions [29.2±1.6°C, 69.88±4.0% relative humidity (RH)]. Mango fruits with 1-MCP treatment applied through gas exposure at 0.5 µL/L consistently delayed the peel color change, firmness, and weight loss of harvested fruits at 100, 105 and 110 DAFI. These fruits held its shelf life for 15 (100 DAFI), 12 (105 DAFI) and 9 (110 DAFI) days compared to control with 12, 10 and 8 days respectively. Furthermore, all treatments showed varied effects on the visual quality of fruits regardless of its maturity. It also appeared that fruits at 105 DAFI treated with ethephon alone have better taste while other organoleptic attributes, chemical properties (TSS, TTA and pH), as well as the disease incidence and severity were found to be comparable. This further proved that 1-MCP delays ripening of fruits but could not prevent disease occurrence.


Download data is not yet available.


M. Lauricella, S. Emanuele, G. Calvaruso, M. Giuliano, and A. D’Anneo, “Multifaceted health benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): The inestimable value of orchards recently planted in sicilian rural areas,” Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1–14, May 2017, doi: 10.3390/nu9050525.

L. Geneston-Asio and F. Cuaresma, “A review of postharvest preatments to maintain mango (Mangifera Indica L.) quality,” Ann. Trop. Res., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 81–93, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.32945/atr3817.2016.

N. J. Thakor, “Indian mango – production and export scenario,” Adv. Agric. Res. Technol. J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2019.

Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), “2019 Commodity Fact Sheets,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2019 Commodity Factsheets_signed.pdf.

A. T. Lacap, E. R. V. Bayogan, L. B. Secretaria, C. D. S. Lubaton, and D. C. Joyce, “Responses of ‘carabao’ mango to various ripening agents,” Philipp. J. Sci., vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 513–523, 2019, Accessed: Apr. 29, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/94-vol-148-no-3-september-2019/1088-responses-of-carabao-mango-to-various-ripening-agents.

K. A. T. Castillo-Israel, J. B. L. Gandia, A. C. G. Velez, W. L. Absulio, and L. C. Bainto, “Storage quality of fresh-cut Philippine ‘Carabao’ mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ’Carabao’) fruits with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) post-cutting treatment,” Int. Food Res. J., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2196–2202, 2015.

L. Ayele and A. Bayleyegn, “Effect of Low Temperature Storage on Ripening and Quality of Mango ( Mangifera Effect of Low Temperature Storage on Ripening and Quality of Mango ( Mangifera indica L .),” J. Agric. Sci. Res., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 570–576, 2017, Accessed: Apr. 29, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322715184_Effect_of_Low_Temperature_Storage_on_Ripening_and_Quality_of_Mango_Mangifera_indica_L.

H. J. D. Lalel, Z. Singh, and S. C. Tan, “Aroma volatiles production during fruit ripening of ‘Kensington Pride’ mango,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 323–336, Mar. 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00117-5.

R. J. Bender, J. K. Brecht, S. A. Sargent, and D. J. Huber, “Low temperature controlled atmosphere storage for tree-ripe mangoes (Mangifera indica L.),” in Acta Horticulturae, 2000, vol. 509, pp. 447–458, doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2000.509.52.

E. Mitcham and E. Yahia, “Alternative Treatments to Hot Water Immersion for Mango Fruit,” 2009.

X. Xu et al., “Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action,” Int. J. Food Microbiol., vol. 241, pp. 1–6, Jan. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.10.002.

I. K. Saeed and A.-B. A. Abu-Goukh, “Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality and shelf life of banana fruits,” U. K. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 154–169, 2013.

C. B. Watkins, “Overview of 1-methylcyclopropene trials and uses for edible horticultural crops,” HortScience, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 86–94, Feb. 2008, doi: 10.21273/hortsci.43.1.86.

H. J. D. Lalel, Z. Singh, and S. C. Tan, “The role of ethylene in mango fruit aroma volatiles biosynthesis,” J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 485–496, 2003, doi: 10.1080/14620316.2003.11511653.

S. Ben-Yehoshua, R. M. Beaudry, S. Fishman, S. Jayanty, and N. Mir, “Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Controlled Atmosphere Storage,” in Environmentally Friendly Technologies for Agricultural Produce Quality, no. November 2014, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 61, 2005, pp. 61–112.

R. Montepio, J. Cataytay, R. Bayron, B. Rafosala, R. Tabanyag, and J. Aromin, “Automated hot water treatment systems for fruits Integrated Postharvest Facilities for Mango,” Application Number: 1/2014/000310, 2014.

R. Singh and U. N. Dwivedi, “Effect of Ethrel and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on antioxidants in mango (Mangifera indica var. Dashehari) during fruit ripening,” Food Chem., vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 951–956, Dec. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.011.

S. M. Silva, E. C. Santos, A. F. Santos, I. R. B. S. Silveira, R. M. N. Mendonça, and R. E. Alves, “Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene on postharvest conservation of exotic mango cultivars,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 645: VII International Mango Symposium, Feb. 2004, vol. 645, pp. 565–572, doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2004.645.74.

D. Jacob-Wilk, D. Holland, E. E. Goldschmidt, J. Riov, and Y. Eyal, “Chlorophyll breakdown by chlorophyllase: Isolation and functional expression of the Chlase1 gene from ethylene-treated Citrus fruit and its regulation during development,” Plant J., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 653–661, Dec. 1999, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00637.x.

G. I. Onwuka, Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Napthali Prints, 2005.

P. Jongsri, T. Wangsomboondee, P. Rojsitthisak, and K. Seraypheap, “Effect of molecular weights of chitosan coating on postharvest quality and physicochemical characteristics of mango fruit,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 73, pp. 28–36, Nov. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.05.038.

P. Penchaiya, R. Jansasithorn, and S. Kanlayanarat, “Effect of 1-MCP on physiological changes in mango ‘Nam Dokmai,’” in Acta Horticulturae, 2006, vol. 712, pp. 717–721, doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2006.712.91.

A.-B. A. Abu-Goukh, M. M. Elzubeir, and O. A. Osman, “Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and waxing on quality and shelf-life of mango fruits,” Univ. Khartoum J. Agric. Sci., vol. 17, no. 1, 2019.

P. Chaiprasart and C. Hansawasdi, “Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the shelf life of mango (mangifera indica linn.) cv. nahm-dawg-mai-sri-tong,” in Acta Horticulturae, 2009, vol. 820, pp. 725–729, doi: 10.17660/actahortic.2009.820.90.

P. Ngamchuachit, D. M. Barrett, and E. J. Mitcham, “Effects of 1‐methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of ‘Keitt’ mangos,” J. Food Sci., vol. 79, no. 4, 2014, doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12380.

L. Li et al., “Effects of the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene on postharvest quality of non-climacteric fruit crops,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 111, pp. 322–329, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.09.031.

C. S. Barry and J. J. Giovannoni, “Ethylene and fruit ripening,” Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 26, no. 2. Springer, pp. 143–159, Jun. 06, 2007, doi: 10.1007/s00344-007-9002-y.

P. J. Hofman, M. Jobin-Decor, G. F. Meiburg, A. J. Macnish, and D. C. Joyce, “Ripening and quality responses of avocado, custard apple, mango and papaya fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene,” Aust. J. Exp. Agric., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 567–572, 2001, doi: 10.1071/EA00152.

J. S. D. Aguila, F. V. Lima, A. E. Gazzola, E. M. M. Ortega, L. S. H. D. Aguila, and R. A. Kluge, “Determination of optimal ethylene concentration applied in postharvest mango fruit,” Rev. Iberoam. Tecnol. Postcosecha, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2013.

S. Lohani, P. K. Trivedi, and P. Nath, “Changes in activities of cell wall hydrolases during ethylene-induced ripening in banana: Effect of 1-MCP, ABA and IAA,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 119–126, Feb. 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.08.001.

C. J. Brady, “Fruit ripening,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 155–178, Jun. 1987, doi: 10.1146/annurev.pp.38.060187.001103.

C. Lizada, “Mango,” in Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening, Springer Netherlands, 1993, pp. 255–271.

J. B. Golding, D. Shearer, S. G. Wyllie, and W. B. McGlasson, “Application of 1-MCP and propylene to identify ethylene-dependent ripening processes in mature banana fruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 87–98, Sep. 1998, doi: 10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00032-5.

J. Faasema, J. S. Alakali, and J. O. Abu, “Effects of storage temperature on 1-methylcyclopropene-treated mango (mangnifera indica) fruit varieties,” J. Food Process. Preserv., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 289–295, 2014, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00775.x.

M. Pauziah, W. H. W. Mohd, and R. Ikwan, “Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene on quality of Chokanan mangoes stored at ambient,” J. Trop. Agric. Fd. Sc, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 37–49, 2014.

B. Calderon-Lopez, J. A. Bartsch, C. Y. Lee, and C. B. Watkins, “Cultivar effects on quality of fresh cut apple slices from 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated apple fruit,” J. Food Sci., vol. 70, no. 3, pp. S221–S227, May 2005, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07161.x.

X. Fan, S. M. Blankenship, and J. P. Mattheis, “1-Methylcyclopropene inhibits apple ripening,” J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 690–695, 1999, doi: 10.21273/jashs.124.6.690.

F. D. M. Cocozza, J. T. Jorge, R. E. Alves, H. A. C. Filgueiras, and M. E. C. Pereira, “Respiration rate and chemical characteristics of cold stored ‘Tommy Atkins’ mangoes influenced by 1-MCP and modified atmosphere packaging,” in Acta Horticulturae, Feb. 2004, vol. 645, no. 645, pp. 645–650, doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.645.85.

T. Ito, K. Sasaki, and Y. Yoshida, “Changes in respiration rate, saccharide and organic acid content during the development and ripening of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. ’Irwin’) cultured in a plastic house,” J. Japanese Soc. Hortic. Sci., vol. 66, no. 3–4, pp. 629–635, 1997, doi: 10.2503/jjshs.66.629.

M. K. Baloch and F. Bibi, “Effect of harvesting and storage conditions on the post harvest quality and shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit,” South African J. Bot., vol. 83, pp. 109–116, Nov. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2012.08.001.

A. M. Dandekar et al., “Effect of down-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis on fruit flavor complex in apple fruit,” Transgenic Res., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 373–384, Aug. 2004, doi: 10.1023/B:TRAG.0000040037.90435.45.

R. E. Paull and C. C. Chen, “Mango, In: Gross, K.C. et al. (Ed). The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, florist and nursery stocks,” Agricultural Handbook, no. 6, 2004.

S. I. H. Tirmazi and R. B. H. Wills, “Retardation of ripening of mangoes by postharvest application of calcium. Trop Agric 137–139 .,” Trop. Agric., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 137–141, 1981, Accessed: May 02, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301303469.

V. Govender, L. Korsten, and D. Sivakumar, “Semi-commercial evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis to control mango postharvest diseases in South Africa,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 57–65, 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2005.04.005.

M. S. Gutierrez, G. D. Trinchero, A. M. Cerri, F. Vilella, and G. O. Sozzi, “Different responses of goldenberry fruit treated at four maturity stages with the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene,” Postharvest Biol. Technol., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 199–205, May 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.10.003.



How to Cite

Manigo, B., & Antibo, N. (2022). 1-Methylcyclopropene and Ethephon Effects on ’Carabao’ Mango Fruits Harvested at Different Stages of Fruit Maturity. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(1), 11 - 28. https://doi.org/10.32734/injar.v5i01.7409